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Chapter 2

WDW152H1 Chapter 2: Why does war recur?
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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW152H1
Professor
Beth Fischer

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Ariel and Durant two propositions: War is one of the constraints of history,
and has not diminished with civilization or democracy
Chinese General Tzu's the Art of War. War can be governed by 5 factors:
moral law, heaven, earth, the commander, and method and discipline
-spies: knowledge of the enemy's dispositions."
Clausewitz: War will continue to be used as an instrument of policy in
interstate conflicts, notwithstanding the proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction and information warfare
-Secondly, Future wars caused by non-state actors ie organizations
Part 1: Historical Overview, W&P, 1.
Peace is an unstable equilibrium, which can be preserved by
acknowledging supremacy or equal power.
War like competition
War is now science and development of technology
USA taken over British role to protect western allies and fight against
communism
Maintaining a world order through Mutual Assured Destruction and only
use treaties to solve issues and use diplomacy because we dont want a lot
of casualties.
Will Durant and Ariel Durant, The Lessons of History,W&P, 2-4.
Genetics have an impact for human aggression?
An instinct for self-preservation through natural selection
Inter + intra group aggression
Pseudospeciation: mechanism which enhances the evaluation of one's in-
group and demonizes an out-group, thus promoting violence
Reading denies that we are genetically created for violence
Theories of Causes of War,W&P, 87.
Used to science to justify war
War is a product of culture
We are not violent beings
If we can make warwe can make peaceit's our responsibility
Seville Statement on Violence, W&P, 94-96.
Need wealth for military and need a strong military to protect + acquire
wealth.
If a nation spends more money on the military instead of acquiring wealth
then they become weaker. Also, if it overextends itself strategically.
No higher power in Europe leading them to be in a competition for
development which made them the stronger continent.
Ie Habsburgs bid for mastery checked by the European powers
Countries that made an advanced system of banking and credit were able
to enjoy their economies
Geographical positioning was important as Russia and Britain were
sheltered from European disputes
Britain began the Industrial revolution and annoyed Napoleon's bid for
European mastery
1815 absence of lengthy coalition wars-Concert of Europe
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers,W&P, 104-109.
Reading 2.2: Why does war recur?
January 18, 2017
7:04 PM
READINGS Page 1
1815 absence of lengthy coalition wars-Concert of Europe
Other major conflicts like Crimean war, American Civil war, and Franco-
Prussian war were bringing defeat upon societies who failed to modernize
20th century technological advance and instability
Eurocentric world system
Strong powers: Russia, USA, Germany and Japan was causing issues in
East Asia
World war 1
1900-1950 bipolar world
World war 2
Crisis of the Cold war(Russia and the USA) causes an arms race
5 powers: China, Japan, EEC, Soviet Union, and the USA
Only general valid conclusions can be drawn from the history of the fall
and rise of the great powers
Global productive balances toward the pacific rim
2 factors between the great power's economic rise and fall, and growth
and decline in military power: 1) Need economic resources to sustain an
army;2) wealth and power are relative
Your power depends on the nations that surround you ie Netherlands were
rich but France and Britain had more
Lag time between wealth and military power
Winners of wars are usually decided when they have the most resources to
use
Int'l system consists of competition for resources and hegemonic power
over smaller states
Diff international power-sharing systems can account for the likelihood of
interstate conflict
Multipolar configurations reduce the likelihood of war as there are no
unilateral actions but it isn't stable in the long run-Karl Deutsch and David
Singer
Kenneth waltz and Scott Sagan debate whether horizontal proliferation of
nuclear weapons increases or decreases the possibility of warfare
-Waltz supports the principle of rational deterrence
-Sagan states the heads of states are rational actors not outside
organizations who can play a damaging role to nations.
Political Theories,W&P, 167
Multipolarity system expected to diminish the frequency and intensity of
war
Two semi-quantitative reasons why this will be the outcome
Stability: the system where actors retains all of their essential
characteristics; that no single nation become dominant; most of its
members continue to survive; and large scale war does not occur
Individual nations must have political independence and territory integrity
Independent actors are responsive to coalition members
Nations are competitive
Pluralism model: if all members in class Blue line up with one another and
against all or in class Red-the line of cleavage will be wide and deep, with
positive feedback. Thus displaying cross-pressures to inhibit any
superimpositions or reinforcement
More actors = more interaction
Every nation's needs and supplies differ
The correlation between number of independent actors and the probability
Karl W. Deutsch and David Singer, Multipolar Systems and International
Stability,W&P, 168-173.
READINGS Page 2

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Description
Reading 2.2: Why does war recur? January 18, 2017 7:04 PM Part 1: Historical Overview, W&P, 1. Ariel and Durant two propositions: War is one of the constraints of history, and has not diminished with civilization or democracy Chinese General Tzu's the Art of War. War can be governed by 5 factors: moral law, heaven, earth, the commander, and method and discipline -spies: knowledge of the enemy's dispositions." Clausewitz: War will continue to be used as an instrument of policy in interstate conflicts, notwithstanding the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and information warfare -Secondly, Future wars caused by non-state actors ie organizations Will Durant and Ariel Durant, The Lessons of History, W&P, 2-4. Peace is an unstable equilibrium, which can be preserved by acknowledging supremacy or equal power. War like competition States provide basic security and encourage nationalism War is now science and development of technology USA taken over British role to protect western allies and fight against communism Maintaininga world order through Mutual Assured Destruction and only use treaties to solve issues and use diplomacy because we dont want a lot of casualties. Theories of Causes of War, W&P, 87. Genetics have an impact for human aggression? An instinct for self-preservation through natural selection Inter + intra group aggression Pseudospeciation: mechanism which enhances the evaluation of one's in- group and demonizes an out-group, thus promoting violence Reading denies that we are genetically created for violence Seville Statement on Violence, W&P, 94-96. Used to science to justify war War is a product of culture We are not violent beings If we can make warwe can make peaceit's our responsibility Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, W&P, 104-109. Need wealth for military and need a strong military to protect + acquire wealth. If a nation spends more money on the military instead of acquiring wealth then they become weaker. Also, if it overextends itself strategically. No higher power in Europe leading them to be in a competition for development which made them the stronger continent. Ie Habsburgs bid for mastery checked by the European powers Countries that made an advanced system of banking and credit were able to enjoy their economies Geographical positioning was important as Russia and Britain were sheltered from European disputes Britain began the Industrial revolution and annoyed Napoleon's bid for European mastery 1815 absence of lengthy coalition wars- Concert of Europe 1815 absence of lengthy coalition wars- Concert of Europe Other major conflicts like Crimean war, American Civil war, and Franco- Prussian war were bringing defeat upon societies who failed to modernize 20th century technological advance and instability Eurocentric world system Strong powers: Russia, USA, Germany and Japan was causing issues in East Asia World war 1 1900-1950 bipolar world World war 2 Crisis of the Cold war(Russia and the USA) causes an arms race 5 powers: China, Japan, EEC, Soviet Union, and the USA Only general valid conclusions can be drawn from the history of the fall and rise of the great powers Global productive balances toward the pacific rim 2 factors between the great power's economic rise and fall, and growth and decline in military power: 1) Need economic resources to sustain an army;2) wealth and power are relative Your power depends on the nations that surround you ie Netherlands were rich but France and Britain had more Lag time between wealth and military power Winners of wars are usually decided when they have the most resources to use Political Theories, W&P, 167 Int'l system consists of competition for resources and hegemonic power over smaller states Diff international power-sharing systems can account for the likelihood of interstate conflict Multipolar configurations reduce the likelihood of war as th
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