Ariel and Durant two propositions: War is one of the constraints of history,
and has not diminished with civilization or democracy
Chinese General Tzu's the Art of War. War can be governed by 5 factors:
moral law, heaven, earth, the commander, and method and discipline
-spies: knowledge of the enemy's dispositions.'
Clausewitz: War will continue to be used as an instrument of policy in
interstate conflicts, notwithstanding the proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction and information warfare
-Secondly, Future wars caused by non-state actors ie organizations
Part 1: Historical Overview, W&P, 1.
Peace is an unstable equilibrium, which can be preserved by
acknowledging supremacy or equal power.
States provide basic security and encourage nationalism
War is now science and development of technology
USA taken over British role to protect western allies and fight against
Maintaining a world order through Mutual Assured Destruction and only
use treaties to solve issues and use diplomacy because we don’t want a lot
Will Durant and Ariel Durant, “The Lessons of History,” W&P, 2-4.
Genetics have an impact for human aggression?
An instinct for self-preservation through natural selection
Inter + intra group aggression
Pseudospeciation: mechanism which enhances the evaluation of one's in-
group and demonizes an out-group, thus promoting violence
Reading denies that we are genetically created for violence
“Theories of Causes of War,” W&P, 87.
Used to science to justify war
War is a product of culture
We are not violent beings
If we can make war…we can make peace…it's our responsibility
Seville Statement on Violence, W&P, 94-96.
Need wealth for military and need a strong military to protect + acquire
If a nation spends more money on the military instead of acquiring wealth
then they become weaker. Also, if it overextends itself strategically.
No higher power in Europe leading them to be in a competition for
development which made them the stronger continent.
Ie Habsburgs bid for mastery checked by the European powers
Countries that made an advanced system of banking and credit were able
Geographical positioning was important as Russia and Britain were
sheltered from European disputes
Britain began the Industrial revolution and annoyed Napoleon's bid for
1815 absence of lengthy coalition wars-Concert of Europe
Paul Kennedy, “The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers,” W&P, 104-109.
Reading 2.2: Why does war recur?