Origins - Chapter 02 Two.docx

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Jason Ho Canadian History Page 1 JWH100Y1 September 18, 12 Origins: Canadian History to Confederation Textbook Notes Chapter Two: The Europeans‟ Arrival The Arrival of the Norse  Irish monks first interested and capable of reaching North America. Irish saint Brendan was said to have found new lands to the west in the 6thcentury but no claim was discovered. th th  From 9 to 12 centuries, Scandinavia led the European sea powers with a commercial empire from Russia to Normandy.  The Norse travelled on many voyages taking them to Faeroe Islands (north of Scotland) in 800 A.D. then to Iceland in 870 A.D. and finally Greenland in 985 A.D.  Eric the Red (Eirikr Thorvaldsson) founded the Norse settlements in Greenland after being exiled for murder from Norway and subsequently Iceland as well.  In 986 A.D. the second year of Eric‟s settlement, Bjarni Herjōlfsson ship trader, veered off course of Greenland during a storm and became the first one that sighted the coast which would later be known as Labrador.  Eric‟s second son, Liefr (Leif) Eiriksson grew hearing of Bjarni‟s tales and in 1001 A.D. he set forth with a crew to explore the lands southwest of Greenland. Sailing to:  Baffin Island, he named it “Helluland” (Flat Stone Land)  Central Labrador, he called it “Mark-land” (Wood Land)  A location between Labrador and Florida with moderate climate and wild berries growing, which he named is “Vinland” (Wineland)  After staying for a winter and summer exploring and harvesting he set sailed back to Greenland having never encountered anyone during his stay.  At the start of the 11hcentury the Norse sponsored several expeditions southwest of Greenland. Leif‟s brother Thorvaldr led the next voyage Jason Ho Canadian History Page 2 JWH100Y1 September 18, 12 with 30 crewmembers and settled in Vinland and explored the southern coast for two summers meeting no one. Conflict between the Norse and the Amerindians  During the second summer Thorvaldr was exploring the northern coast when they encountered nine skraelings (barbarians) under three skinboats. Historians believe they were Inuit and not Amerindians.  Norse murdered them all but one, which escaped and brought back reinforcements to drive them away. Skirmishes like this happened frequently on subsequent expeditions, which prevented permanent settlements. The Historical Value of the Norse Sagas  The histories of the Norse Sagas were passed down orally for 300 years before being written down. Many of which were embellished but still hold some value of truth to them.  In 1960, Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine Ingstad used the sagas as clues to located the first site of European settlement in North America and they found it on the Great Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland.  Eight sod-walled structures, largest being 25 m long, were of similar construction of that by the Norse in Iceland and Greenland and radiocarbon dating puts it back around 1000 A.D. their occupancy was short lived in these dwellings. The Norse in Greenland  Norse occupied Greenland for nearly 500 years with their economy based on stock, hunting/fishing and regularly traded with the Inuit for timber.  The Greenland settlements prospered in the 12 th century with a th population of as much as 6000 but that all changed in the 13 century when the climate shifted colder and threatened agriculture.  Walrus-ivory trade declined due to the Portuguese importing elephant ivory from Africa and the Black Death struck Europe in Jason Ho Canadian History Page 3 JWH100Y1 September 18, 12 1349, killing one-third of Norway and Iceland which meant no more resupplies to Greenland. By 1450 the settlements disappeared. The Entry of the Portuguese and the Spanish th  Portuguese became the leader in sea superiority by the 15 century with narrow ships with two masts known as caravels.  With their fast and efficient ships they were able to explore more places than anyone else.  1420, Madeira  1427, Azores  Their voyages across the Atlantic were too dangerous because of the strong westerly winds thus putting their efforts on the other side of the world by discovering a route around Africa to India.  In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached India Europe‟s Interest in Expansion  Curiosity and desire to find new lands and wealth, and religious enlightenment  Europeans needed a new route to “the Indies” after the Turks‟ captured Constantinople in 1453  Arabs already had enough land and wealth that they did not need to explore further than the Indian Ocean  Chinese became isolationists in the mid 1430s by orders of the emperor The Voyage of Columbus, 1492  Ancient times, Europeans such as Aristotle, believed Asia could be reached by sailing west from the Atlantic coast  Columbus with an extensive sailing background approached the king and queen of Spain to propose an expedition across the Atlantic  In 1492 he sailed south to the Canary Islands to avoid the westerly winds then headed west reaching the Caribbean and was convinced that he was near mainland Asia thus naming the inhabitants “Indians” Jason Ho Canadian History Page 4 JWH100Y1 September 18, 12  Fierce rivalry between Spain and Portugal began as a result of Columbus‟ “discovery” and in 1493 Pope Alexander VI drew a line of division through the mid-Atlantic from North Pole to south.  By the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 Spain and Portugal agreed to move the Pope‟s line 100 leagues farther west. All lands west of the line belonged to Spain while the east belonged to Portugal The English and the French Cross the North Atlantic  In 1496 King Henry VII sponsored his own expedition with Italian mariner John Cabot, after hearing the successes of Columbus  Anxious to secure a direct access to Asia, the English monarch granted Cabot full reign to seek out and discover new lands and bore all the expenses  Cabot set sail in 1497 and reached the east coast of Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence thinking it was a direct route to China and India. He also discovered the rich fishing area of the great continental shelf swarming with cod  After returning to England with the news, the king was delighted and sponsored a second voyage the following year in 1498 but as they set out they were never heard from again. With the death of Henry VII shortly after, the interest in a Northwest Passage dropped.  News of the rich fishing area spread to all the fishing fleets across Europe and the fishing business in North America began The Portuguese in the North Atlantic th  Until the early 16 century, Portugal focused on a sea route around Africa and on Brazil, which was claimed in 1500. But in the hopes for a Passage, they sponsored three expeditions.  João Fernandes, a lavrador (small farmer) led an expedition in 1499 to search for islands in the Portuguese half of the world but proved no success, but along the way did map a large section of Canada‟s Atlantic coastline. In 1500 Fernandes reached Greenland and humorously called it “Tierra del Lavrador” Land of the Farmer. A century later the old Norse name Greenland was re- discovered and shifted Labrador to the southwest. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 5 JWH100Y1 September 18, 12  In 1500 Gaspar Corte-Real sailed to Newfoundland and captured 57 Amerindians and sent them back to Europe with his brother Miguel hoping to make money for slave trading. Having not heard back from Gaspar for some time, Miguel sailed to search for him but was also lost.  Despite the dangers of navigating the uncharted North Atlantic, Europeans annually fished the Grand Banks and the coastal waters of Newfoundland  After the Core-Real expeditions, Portugal lost interest in the North Atlantic for two decades till around 1520 when João Alvares Faundes voyaged along the south coast of Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  With the rights granted with the king, Fagundes claimed ownership of the region and established the first European colony since the Norse. The Portuguese settled on the eastern coast of Cape Breton Island but trouble arose with the local Amerindians a year later and was driven out.  After Fagundes‟ failure to keep the settlement, Portugal lost interest in the supposedly poor region of the New World. French interest in the North Atlantic  Out of all the European powers in early 16 thcentury, France was the best situated to dominate northeastern North America.  Due to European
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