Origins - Chapter 03 Three.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Woodsworth College Courses
Thomas Socknat

Jason Ho Canadian History Page 1 JWH100Y1 September 21, 12 Origins: Canadian History to Confederation Textbook Notes Chapter Three: The Beginnings of New France The Rise of the Fur Trade  Fur trade began as a by-product of the fishing industry. By coming back each year to the same location, the French established good trade relations with the local Amerindians  In the 1580s, the French merchants began sending out ships solely for trading fur products as they were unavailable in Europe  Initially, the First Nations did not perceive the fur trade as any threat to their independence but by the early 17thcentury, the Algonquians on the Atlantic coast lost their self-sufficiency and reliant on the Europeans.  Mi’kmaq’s were once a hunting/fishing society now became trappers spending long periods away from the coast trapping fur-bearing animals for trade and requiring trade for food during winter months since they no longer kept food stores.  Tadoussac, at the moth of the Saguenay River became the Europeans’ main trading centre on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and as many as 20 ships were there at any given time during summer months of the mid-1580s  Trading reached such levels by the 1590s that the French Crown established a monopoly to control it. All attempts failed however and many colonists died through winter of 1600 and 1598 on Sabe Island suffered the same fate. Samuel De Champlain  Little is known of his origins, he was most likely have come from Brouage, on the Bay of Biscay in western France and at an early age went to sea and became a competent ship’s captain and a soldier in the royal army.  In 1603, François Gravé Du Pont and Samuel de Champlain became partners and set sailed up the St. Lawrence River together Jason Ho Canadian History Page 2 JWH100Y1 September 21, 12  Much has changed over the years since Cartier, Montagnais and Algonquins moved up along the St. Lawrence driving out the peoples of Stadacona and Hochelaga  With no clues or evidence as to what had happened, we can only hypothesize that the St. Lawrence Iroquoians were driven out by either the Algonquian nation or rival New York Iroquois groups with the help of advanced weaponry from the Europeans  Some suggest that it may have been European diseases introduced by Cartier or the French settlers that wiped out the people  Following the route that Cartier took, they examined the St. Lawrence valley carefully during the summer of 1603. They learned of the existence of a nation called the “good Iroquois” (Huron) who lived by a great lake to the northwest (Lake Huron) as well as other lakes such as Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. The French in Acadia  From 1604 to 1607, Pierre Du Gua de Monts, a fur monopolist, accompanied Gravé and Champlain to search for a suitable location to establish a colony for the fur trade industry.  They sailed south to the Maritime provinces for a location potentially rich in minerals which was then determined to be Annapolis Basin up the Bay of Fundy where they named it Port-Royal  There they setup their new settlement and again suffered great losses during the winter months with 79 people succumbing to scurvy. The French at Port-Royal  This colony became the first European agricultural settlement in Canada and with it established, the French continued to explore the coastline the following year  Champlain stayed at Port-Royal for the third winter and Acadia in the final winter in 1606-07. For that was the first time the French had a successful winter and was able to enjoy it  Despite the improved situation over the winter, de Monts decided to abandon Port-Royal and ironically the French decided to abandon Acadia at the same time Jason Ho Canadian History Page 3 JWH100Y1 September 21, 12  After three years of expenditures, unsuccessfully searching for mineral resources and a Northwest Passage, de Monts realized the poor location of the area where he cannot enforce his fur-trade monopoly The Founding of Quebec  In 1608, Champlain and Gravé returned to the St. Lawrence Valley, to find a location where they could control access to the interior to prevent competition from others  At a point where the St. Lawrence narrows before widening again, and with a towering cliff, was where Champlain constructed a habitation (collection of wood buildings surrounded by a stockade and moats), he named it Quebec or Kebec Algonquian for “strait”  Again caught off guard of a severe winter, 20 out of 28 settlers died of scurvy and dysentery  With the First Nations at war, the French had no trouble claiming the land as their own since the Montagnais welcomed them as valuable allies and trading partners Early French-Native Relations  With a French and Algonquian alliance forged, the Montagnais and Algonquins asked Champlain to join their war efforts against the Iroquois  Seeing as it was mutually beneficial as they would obtain furs, help with surviving the winter, and geographical information while the Natives would receive help to fight their war against the Iroquois  In the mid-16 th century the French began to send young men off to live with the Aboriginals to learn their language and ways of life, also known as coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) This in turn reinforced and strengthened relations  In 1610, Champlain made an exchange with the Hurons. They took a young Frenchman by the name of Étienne Brûlé and Champlain took in Savignon, a headman’s brother. From Brûlé and Savignon the French learned of the Huron Confederacy and its nation of 30 000.  Champlain made his last journey to the interior in 1615, proposing a Franco-Huron alliance. With the war between the Iroquois and Jason Ho Canadian History Page 4 JWH100Y1 September 21, 12 Algonquins escalating, they needed allies badly, so they permitted the Hurons and French to trade directly along the Ottawa River  Concluding the treaties with Huronia by affirming French support in their wars they continued trade and by the 1620s the Hurons were supplying one-half to two-thirds of the furs the French obtained in New France. The Company of One Hundred Associates  The fur-trade post grew slowly, in 1621 there were no more than 60 people living in Quebec, and thanks to the Natives, the fur trade required few Europeans to uphold.  New France was smallest of the colonies of its day; the English colony in Virginia had a tobacco-based economy and 2000 inhabitants by 1627, which was twenty times larger.  Cardinal Richelieu upon seeing this, in 1627, set out to end the dependency on furs and more on mercantile trade. Holding to the belief that colonies existed to aid the mother country he wanted all goods to be traded with France only.  Cardinal sponsored a new company called Compagnie des Cent- Associés (Company of One Hundred Associates) whi
More Less

Related notes for WDW101Y1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.