Destinies - Chapter 02 Two.docx

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Woodsworth College Courses
Thomas Socknat

Jason Ho Canadian History Page 1 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013 Destinies: Canadian History Since Confederation Textbook Notes Chapter Two: Three Oceans, One Country 1867-1880 The Nova Scotia Repeal Movement  Nova Scotia opposed union with Canada from the beginning. When elections were held, anti-confederates with the exception of the Premier Charles Tupper who barely won by 100 votes, held all legislative seats.  The Anti-Confederation League, later renamed Nova Scotia Party, was formed in 1866 and led by Joseph Howe.  Howe along with others wanted to strengthen ties with Britain and not weaken it through the BNA union. After losing his seat in government, he headed a committee to London to get sanction for Nova Scotia’s release from Confederation but was ultimately refused.  Other anti-confederates with business ties favoured annexation to the US. After Britain adopted free trade in the 1840s, they developed lucrative trade with the US through the Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 until Senate rescinded it in 1866.  John A. Macdonald saw Howe opposed to unite with the US and incentivized him into joining Canada instead, which included assisting him in getting a federal seat in government.  Howe’s conversion weakened the repeal movement but the annexationists remained and in June 1869 the Anti-Confederation League changed its name to Annexation League but at the time, they prospered and the US was not interested in annexing Nova Scotia.  The final offer of better terms for Nova Scotia won over the moderate anti-confederates. But Confederation would remain the central issue facing the province. They pressured Macdonald into giving them priority to the construction of the Intercolonial Railway linking up The Canadian Acquisition of Rupert’s Land  Macdonald’s Conservative government faced serious trouble in the Northwest. The US talked openly of annexing the region and in 1864 Jason Ho Canadian History Page 2 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013 Congress granted charter for the construction of the Northern Pacific Railway with the intention of capturing more trade in the British territory.  In 1868, the Canadian government began negotiations in London with the British government to acquire Rupert’s Land from HBC and an agreement was ultimately reached in 1869-70 and it constituted as one of the largest real-estate deals in history.  Historian Chester Martin maintained that the land deal “transformed the original Dominion from a federation of equal provinces… into a veritable empire in its own right.” Administering the Northwest  While negotiations were underway, the Canadian government made preparations to administer the new territory  In June 1869, Parliament passed the “Act for the Temporary Government of Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territory.” It provided for a colonial system of government with an appointed governor and council.  The Canadian government made immediate plans to build a road from the Lake of the Woods to Fort Garry in Red River colony as well as an eventual railway to link the Northwest to the rest of Canada.  However trouble arose with a group of Métis in the Red River colony led by Louis Riel, which forbade lieutenant governor McDougall and surveyors, from entering Rupert’s Land.  The mixed-blood population in the Red river consisted of three groups. Half were French Métis, a third were “country born” descendants of Scottish and First Nation and the remainder was descendants of Scottish settlers and newly arrived immigrants. The Métis Resistance of 1869-1870  The French Métis resented that they had not been consulted over the sale of their homeland. They also disliked the aggressiveness of the small group of Canadian expansionists in the Red River Colony working to bring the region into Confederation. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 3 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  In the local newspaper, The Nor’Wester, these Canadians ridiculed the Métis and proclaimed Canada’s right to take control of the Northwest as part of the country’s “manifest destiny”  Métis reacted by occupying Upper Fort Garry, the seat of government, and on November 2 established their own provisional government thus gaining effective control of the Red River colony.  Without waiting for official transfer of the Red River colony to Canada on December 1, William McDougall crossed the border on November 30 in the name of the sovereignty to proclaim the territory, not knowing that the government postponed the takeover until the dispute was resolved.  Macdonald dismissed McDougall and asked Bishop Alexandre Taché and Donald A Smith to oversee the negotiations with Riel’s provisional government.  On November 1869, they drew up a bill of rights outlining its grievances and demands that became the basis for negotiations.  Meanwhile, a Canadian expansionist party in Red River took action into its own hands and prepared to oppose the provisional government by setting up a base of operations at a general store owned by John Schultz.  The Métis raided the store and imprisoned the Canadians, they agreed to release them if the prisoners left the colony or obeyed he provisional government. Schultz and few others refused to comply and later broke free to mount a failed assault on Upper Fort Garry.  The members of the assault were quickly detained including a Thomas Scott, who was a very offensively outspoken individual. Métis court tried Scott for contempt and was executed on March 4, 1870.  A national crisis was created, where Ontario found a martyr (Scott) and Quebec found a protector (Riel). Macdonald proposed a compromise and passed the Manitoba Act in May 1870 where the Red River colony entered Confederation as a province and an armed force was sent to secure the Northwest. The Manitoba Act Jason Ho Canadian History Page 4 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  The Manitoba Act created the new province of Manitoba that included only 35 000km around the Red River settlement and Portage la Prairie to the west.  They received its own legislative assembly, four federal members of Parliament, and two senators, but had no control over its own public lands and natural resources and was to be used for the purposes of the Dominion.  The Manitoba Act recognized both French and English as official languages.  Historians argue whether or not the founding fathers were planning on creating a bilingual and bicultural nation. The Wolseley Expedition  After Manitoba’s entry into Confederation, tension continued in the region. Macdonald sent a conti
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