Destinies - Chapter 03 Three.docx

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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course
WDW101Y1
Professor
Thomas Socknat
Semester
Winter

Description
Jason Ho Canadian History Page 1 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013 Destinies: Canadian History Since Confederation Textbook Notes Chapter Three: A “National Policy”? Emerging English-Canadian and French- Canadian Expressions of Nationalism  English-speaking Canadian nationalists launched the Canada First Movement in Ottawa in the spring of 1868. They saw English- speaking Canadians as the “Northmen of the New World.”  French Canadians and Native peoples rejected Canada First Movement’s vision of the new Dominion as a means of propaganda and promotion of an English protestant Canada  French Canadians envisioned a French-speaking, Roman Catholic nation and so Ignace Bourget, and his disciple Louis-François Laflèche led a ultramontane movement within the Roman Catholic church with the goal of having the church run the state.  The ultramontanes began a political movement in 1871 and issued a Programme catholique, which proclaimed the church’s right to advise Roman Catholics on how to vote, which were for the bleus (Conservatives).  A number of French-Canadian politicians opposed the mixing of religion and politics including Conservatives such as George-Étienne Cartier, and the Liberal French-Canadians in the Institut Canadien in 1844. The Guibord Affair  Bishop Bourget attempted to silence the opposition by denying sacraments to members of the Institut including the right of burial in consecrated ground.  Joseph Guibord, refused a Christian burial. His wife, Henriette Brown Guibord, through various appeal courts was finally offered a settlement after six years and ruled that burial was a civil right.  Madame Guibord died shortly after and buried in the family plot, along with her husband which was place in cement to prevent Jason Ho Canadian History Page 2 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013 vandalism. Bourget however immediately deconsecrated Guibord’s body. Liberal Rule: 1873-1878  The Conservatives won the federal election of 1872, but one year later a political scandal broke  Macdonald and Cartier accepted more than $300 000 in campaign funds from Sir Hugh Allan and his group from the US. While the donations of this type were not uncommon, the large amount was. An American railway tycoon supplied the evidence to the Liberal opposition after being excluded from the consortium.  After the Liberals accused the Conservatives of immorality and corruption, they denied involvement. However fearing want-of- confidence vote, he resigned on November 5. The governor general asked the Liberals to form a government and did so without an election.  On January 1874, the new Prime Minister, Alexander Mackenzie, dissolved parliament and called an election, which the Liberals won. Liberal Leadership  Alexander Mackenzie was born in Glasgow and came to Canada at age 20 and worked as a stonemason.  He inherited numerous political problems, such as the Liberal party’s strife with it being a coalition of factions (rouges, Clear Grits, and Liberal Reformers) that came together through mutual dislike for the Conservatives and their program.  The Liberal party needed a strong leader, of which Alexander Mackenzie was not, to pull its divergent groups together and provide direction. The Liberals’ Political Problems  Mackenzie took office just as Canada entered an economic depression.  The North American and European financial boom of the 1860s and 70s broke and federal debt rose sharply. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 3 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  Mackenzie responded by slowing down the railway-building scheme, despite BC’s threat to leave the union. However the incurred expenditures from the establishment of the RMC at Kingston in 1876 did not help.  Due to the depression, the Liberals concentrated on constitutional and political questions. They established the Supreme Court of Canada as a national appeal court. Restricted powers of the governor general and his right to disallow legislation without consult.  The Liberals also introduced several political reforms such as, the secret ballot, same day election, closing taverns to prevent buying votes, and ended the system of dual representation. The National Policy of John A. Macdonald  The Mackenzie administration lacked an economic agenda, it had wanted a reciprocity treaty with the Us similar to the one in 1854, and had drafted one in 1874 but was rejected by the American Senate.  Conservatives found an alternative, and with the lobbying of the Canadian Maufacturers’ Association convinced John A. Macdonald to accept a protective system of high tariffs to increase import duties, and promote manufacturing.  The “National Policy” rested on three essentials: high protective tariff; completion of a transcontinental railway; and the settlement of the West. Debate Over the National Policy  Advocates of the National Policy argued that the tariff protection would shift trade from a north-south to an east-west axis thus providing their own national market and not depend on the US.  Liberals argued that the tariff would create a fiscal barrier around the country and that the policy only benefits manufacturers and industrial sector and burden the workers, farmers and fishers, for higher cost equipment. The Liberals’ National Policy Jason Ho Canadian History Page 4 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  Despite Liberal opposition at the time of implementation of the National Policy in 1879, the Liberal party under Laurier adopted its own version of the National Policy in 1896, which lowered tariffs for any country admitting Canadian goods. Building the Canadian Pacific Railway  A transcontinental railway was the second component of the national policy.  Settlers wishing to go from Toronto to Manitoba either had to travel through the US or by steamboat across the Great Lakes then by wagon trail to Winnipeg and beyond.  BC’s entry also depended on the railway, as a means of economic growth thus is able to compete with the US as a greater nation. Government Involvement in Railway Building  Prior to the construction of the CPR the Canadian Government had already gone into heavy debt from building the Grand Trunk Railway linking Central Canada with the Maritimes.  Despite obvious expenses, they embarked to build the CPR which would be two-thirds longer than any other single railway line that existed in the world, crossing over 5000km of forest, prairies and mountains.  Several reasons compelled them to undertake such a feat, such as the threat of annexation of the Northwest by the US, enable Canada be a worthy member of the British Empire, and secure the millions of hectares of fertile land. The Search for a Private Company  Macdonald’s Conservative government after huge financial backing granted Sir Hugh Allan and the Canada Pacific Company, the sole building contract to undertake the project.  After the resulting scandal forced Macdonald out of office and put Liberals in power, they continued the railway only on sections where the settlement warranted construction and as money became available.  When the Conservatives returned to office in 1878, an economic upturn enabled them to find a new private company, the CPRC Jason Ho Canadian History Page 5 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013 who was offered $25 million in financing and 25 million acres of land, nearly 40 km wide on both sides of the track. They also inherited the 1200km of track that is already completed, exempt from duties on construction materials, free from taxation for 20 years and a monopoly clause until 1900.  A two-month debate followed and proved one of the longest and bitterest in the history of Parliament. Macdonald held his ground and voted down 25 amendments proposed by Liberals The CPR Route  The new CPR Company decided to alter the route of the railway first proposed by Sandford Fleming’s survey team in the early 1870s.  The company feared that the American Northern Pacific Railway would siphon off the trade from southern prairies and bringing American influences.  Elliott Galt discovered coal deposits near Lethbridge that could be used as a fuel station and also disproved past reports on the area that stated the area was a desert.  Once the government confirmed the new route, construction began in 1881 and William Cornelius Van Horne was hired to oversee construction.  Progress was swift until it reached the mountain terrain, where laying tracks on sides of mountains, blasting tunnels, and bridging rivers were costing enormous amounts of time and money as well as hundreds of lives (Chinese Workers)  Construction costs rose because Van Horne insisted on the best materials to ensure long-term use. Also the costs rose from the construction through Precambrian rocks in Northern Ontario and having to buy up the existing eastern lines to connect with Toronto and Montreal.  In the summer of 1883, the syndicate needed an estimated $22.5 million, which was almost an entire year’s revenue for the federal government. Macdonald convinced his part to agree to another loan, after CPR agreed to mortgage the main line, all the rolling stock, and everything connected with the railway. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 6 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  By the end of 1884, the company was once again plunged toward bankruptcy and on March 26, 1885, George Stephen appealed to Macdonald for more government money, but was swiftly declined. The next morning came the new of the Métis rebellion under Louis Riel thus giving justification for more financing toward the construction.  On November 7, 1885, Donald Smith drove in the last spike at Craigellachie. With the construction now completed, a trip from Montreal to Vancouver could be completed in a mere 85 hours.  The Pacific railway cost the government 10.4 million ha of the best prairie land, an estimated $63.5 million in public funds, and $35 million in government loans. Yet the private company was very profitable garnering a capital of $228 million by 1905. Two New Transcontinental Railways  During the economic boom of the Laurier era (1896-1911), Canada added two new transcontinental railways. The first was the Canadian Northern Railway that was backed by Donald Mann and William Mackenzie and was built from Port Arthur to Montreal. The second was the Grand Trunk Railway that ran across Canada, where the government would back the 2880km long eastern section.  However both lines ended in bankruptcy where both encountered problems building in the West, especially in the BC section. In the end there were over 18 000 km of prairie railway, having 8 parallel east-west lines within the space of 55km New Inventions  In 1884, the first electric telegraph line was built in the United States and soon other countries, such as Canada, realized the benefits of the new rapid communication.  In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and made a successful call between Brantford and Paris, Ontario.  In the late nineteenth century, Sandford Gleming, dubbed “the Father of Canadian Communications,” built the first transatlantic and a transpacific underwater cable to link Canada to British and other British colonies. Jason Ho Canadian History Page 7 JWH100Y1 January 10, 2013  In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi picked up the first wireless signal sent across the Atlantic Ocean by erecting an antenna on Signal Hill in St. John’s Newfoundland. A year later he created the Wireless Telegraph Company of Canada and operated a transatlantic radio link between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia and London, England. The Dominion’s Strategy for the Northwest  Development of the West constituted the third component of Macdonald’s national policy.  Without the west populated, there were no justification for a transcontinental railway, and without a railway, no east-west trade could occur and without internal trade, the National Policy on tariff was meaningless.  Each township was 36 square miles, and consisted of 36 sections with each section being 1 square mile and contained 640 acres divided into quarter sections of 160 acres.
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