Chapter 2: the criminal law and its process. Criminal law is a living concept, constantly evolving to keep pace with society. Law defines the behaviours that society labels as criminal. Code of hammurabi: developed by sumer, adopted by hammurabi punishment was based on physical retaliation or lex talionis (an eye for an eye) Mosaic code of israelites: god entered into a covenant or contract with the tribes of israel in which. Foundation of judeo-christian moral teachings and also basis for present day legal system they agreed to obey god"s law in return for care and protection. Guilt was determined by ordeals (accused placing hand in boiling water to see if god would save/heal. Until 18th century, systems of crime, punishment, law and justice were chaotic wounds) Each country (shire) was divided into units of 100 families , divided into groups of 10 (tithings) each responsible for maintaining order among themselves and dealing with disturbances, fires, wild animals etc.