Chapter 1 Notes

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Woodsworth College Courses
Jim Davies

Crime and Criminology (Chapter 1) Criminal Justice System: The stages in the criminal justice system where the offender must pass through them. Ex, Police, corrections, prison (corrections) Intimate violence: violence or crimes that occur between family and friends Crime that is publicized has a great impact on the community around them, as people feel unsafe in their own communities. However, although crime may seem to be more frequent, the rates are the same Criminology: scientific study of the nature, extent cause and control of criminal behaviour What is Criminology?  Sutherland and Cressey state that criminology also extends into the branch of the creation of criminal laws and the reaction towards breaking laws. In addition, the ways to control crime and criminal behaviour.  Difference between criminology and criminal justice: Criminal justice looks at the correctional facilities and courts of law system and how to control better with better methods. Criminology looks at the origin of crime, as well as the causes, and nature of crime in society as we know it. Criminology and Deviance  There is a difference between crime and deviance. Deviance is behaviour that breaches social norms and goes against them but is not necessarily criminal  Some crimes are considered deviant, like not staying at the scene of a car accident. But not all deviant actions are considered crimes  There is a fine line between deviance and crime. As the concept of deviance changes, so does the area of criminology Utilitarianism punishment: punishment must be fair and balance because criminal behaviour must be seen as purposeful and reasonable. Classical/Choice Criminology: The perspective where it is stated that people have the free will to between criminal or conventional behaviour, as well as choosing to do crime for greed and personal gain and crime can only be controlled through the fear of punishment for one's actions 19th Century Positivism: Sparked by the scientific revolution in Europe Positivism: Uses scientific reasoning to understand human behaviour, and states that human behaviour is dictated through forces that cannot be control. Ex. political, war, famine, social pressure and psychological reasons. Uses scientific reasoning to solve problems early 19th century: crime was being link to mental instability in people Lombrosian Theory: Criminals are who they are because of biological inheritance and that offenders are born criminals. They have inherited criminal traits. He also stated that criminals are born with traits that make them more primitive and therefore more prone for criminal actions. Durkheim: Crime is everywhere and cannot be fully removed from a society. By doing that it would mean that everyone would be the same and this would stifle creativity and uniqueness. Crime is required to society to live normally. It derives from the differences and petty grievances of people. 1930's: Sociologist linked criminal actions with the environment people are brought up in Conflict Criminology (Marx's Theory)  Said that the economic system determined peoples' lives 
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