Crime and Criminology (Chapter 1)
Criminal Justice System: The stages in the criminal justice system where the offender
must pass through them. Ex, Police, corrections, prison (corrections)
Intimate violence: violence or crimes that occur between family and friends
Crime that is publicized has a great impact on the community around them, as people feel
unsafe in their own communities.
However, although crime may seem to be more frequent, the rates are the same
Criminology: scientific study of the nature, extent cause and control of criminal
What is Criminology?
Sutherland and Cressey state that criminology also extends into the branch of the
creation of criminal laws and the reaction towards breaking laws. In addition, the
ways to control crime and criminal behaviour.
Difference between criminology and criminal justice: Criminal justice looks at the
correctional facilities and courts of law system and how to control better with
better methods. Criminology looks at the origin of crime, as well as the causes,
and nature of crime in society as we know it.
Criminology and Deviance
There is a difference between crime and deviance. Deviance is behaviour that
breaches social norms and goes against them but is not necessarily criminal
Some crimes are considered deviant, like not staying at the scene of a car
accident. But not all deviant actions are considered crimes
There is a fine line between deviance and crime. As the concept of deviance
changes, so does the area of criminology
Utilitarianism punishment: punishment must be fair and balance because criminal
behaviour must be seen as purposeful and reasonable.
Classical/Choice Criminology: The perspective where it is stated that people have the
free will to between criminal or conventional behaviour, as well as choosing to do crime
for greed and personal gain and crime can only be controlled through the fear of
punishment for one's actions
19th Century Positivism: Sparked by the scientific revolution in Europe
Positivism: Uses scientific reasoning to understand human behaviour, and states that
human behaviour is dictated through forces that cannot be control. Ex. political, war, famine, social pressure and psychological reasons. Uses scientific reasoning to solve
early 19th century: crime was being link to mental instability in people
Lombrosian Theory: Criminals are who they are because of biological inheritance and
that offenders are born criminals. They have inherited criminal traits. He also stated that
criminals are born with traits that make them more primitive and therefore more prone for
Durkheim: Crime is everywhere and cannot be fully removed from a society. By doing
that it would mean that everyone would be the same and this would stifle creativity and
uniqueness. Crime is required to society to live normally. It derives from the differences
and petty grievances of people.
1930's: Sociologist linked criminal actions with the environment people are brought up in
Conflict Criminology (Marx's Theory)
Said that the economic system determined peoples' lives