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NURS 341 Chapter Notes - Chapter N/A: Nurse Education, Silence 4, Nursing Process


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 341
Professor
Coby Tschanz
Chapter
N/A

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Running head: N341 READING NOTES
1
N341 Reading Notes
Haley Westra
NURS 341: Professional Practice IV: Nursing Inquiry
Coby Tschanz
University of Victoria

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N341 READING NOTES
2
Week 2
1. Alligood, M. R. (2014). Introduction to nursing theory: Its history,
significance, and analysis. In M. R. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing theorists and
their work (8th ed., pp. 2-9). St. Louis, MI: Elsevier
Brief History
Historically, nursing knowledge was passed on through education that focused on
skills and functional tasks
20th century development of nursing knowledge
o Nursing practice
o Improving quality of care
o Gaining recognition of nursing as a profession
linkages were strengthened between nursing as an academic discipline and as
professional practice” (p. 2)
Nightingale recognized nurses as “educated women at a time when women were
neither educated nor employed in public service” (p. 3)
o Mid-1800s recognized and declared nursing knowledge as distinct, but not
separate, from medical knowledge
Nursing role = to put the patient in the best condition for God to act
upon him/her
“care of the sick is based on knowledge of persons and their
surroundings” (p. 3)
Curriculum era addressed what content students should study in order to learn how
to be a nurse
o Gave way to the research era (and the graduate education era)
o Eventually gave way to the research emphasis era
Theory era doctoral education in nursing; strong emphasis on theory development
and experimentation
Theory utilization era ...emphasis shifted to theory application in nursing practice,
education, administration and research (p. 5)
o Restored a balance between research and practice
Discipline: specific to academia refers to a branch of education, a department of learning
or a domain of knowledge” (p. 6)
Profession: a specialized field of practice, founded upon the theoretical structure of the
science of knowledge of that discipline and accompanying practice abilities” (p. 6)
Frameworks and theories: structures about human beings and their health” (p. 8)
A Theoretical Approach to Practice
Helps nurses not to be overwhelmed by the mass of information
Enables nurses to organize and understand what happens in practice
Enables nurses to analyze patient situations critically for clinical decision-making

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N341 READING NOTES
3
Enables nurses to plan care and propose appropriate nursing interventions, predict
patient outcomes and evaluate effectiveness
Analysis of Theory
To acquire knowledge of theoretical adequacy
How clear is this theory?
o Meaning of terms used
o Words should be defined carefully and specifically according to the
framework
How simple is this theory?
o Should be sufficiently comprehensive
How general is this theory?
o The scope of application and the purpose within the theory
o Broader scope = greater significance of the theory
o Varies by how abstract or concrete the theory is
How accessible is this theory?
o Linked to the empirical indicators for testability and ultimate use of a theory
to describe aspects of practice
How important is this theory?
o Should reveal what knowledge nurses must, and should, spend time pursuing
Summary
Using theoretical research as systematic evidence for critical thinking and decision-
making leads to increased professional power and improved quality of care
The use of theory-based research supports evidence-based practice” (p. 11)
2. Cody, W. K. (1994). The language of nursing science: If not now, when?
Nursing Science Quarterly, 7(3), 98-99
Extinction of Nursing Theory
“the call for the extinction of nursing theory may become the death knell of the
discipline” (p. 98)
Argument: nurses should be careful to use language in the development of the
science that consumers and members of other disciplines could easily understand
(p. 98)
o But all mature disciplines unique language to express the scope of their
perspectives (e.g. id, ego and superego)
“the language of nursing science is deemed less than “scientific” if it includes terms
different from those used by other disciplines, and less than “democratic” if it
requires significant effort to comprehend” (p. 98)
A learned discipline guides practice; language guides conceptualizations
“the proposition that there is no valid theory is also a theory” (p. 99)
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