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Chapter 2

Biological Sciences 55-237 Chapter 2: Microbiology Lecture 2


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 2070
Professor
tanyanoel
Chapter
2

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Microbiology Lecture 2
You can divide up microbes in certain ways
Bacteria
Archaea
Protozoa
Fungi
o There are both large fungi and microbial fungi
Algae
o Phylogenetically, complex things go on
o Looking at a subsettiny ones
o Included because of the way they grow and the way they interact with other
organisms
Prions
o Proteins
o No nucleuc acid
o Proteins that are folded wrong
o This misfolded protein is able to infect cells by causing other proteins of the
sort to misfold
Viruses
o Contain nucleic acid
o In infective form, also have some sort of protein capsid or head
o Cannot replicate unless inside a host cell
Viroid
o Tiny pieces of RNA that manage to infect plants and mess them up
o Do not know of any that cause disease in humans
o We may find one of them one day
Prions, viruses, and viroids are called infectious particles
o Can replicate
o Affect other types of organisms
o In some ways, they behave a lot like bacteria do in the infection process
Bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes)
They are typically lumped together
o Should avoid this
We know more about bacteria than we do archaea
o Many cause diseases
Most bacteria in our lives don’t affect us
o Some are valuable; some are required for life
Bacteria can be killed by antibiotics
o Some strains
Do not know much about archaea
Fundamental differences between archaea and bacteria
Have not observed archaea that cause human disease
Have found archaea in oral cavity and gut
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o These areas have so many microbes
o Not sure if they are doing anything; can’t rule out if there is no relationship
between archaea and humans
Bacterua that cause disease in animals and plants
Right now, have not seen archaea that cause disease
o Don’t know much about them
Antibiotics for bacteria usually do not work against archaea
These cells are different enough that the things that target bacterial cells do not
work against archaea
Antimicrobial drugs
Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobial drug
Certain drugs can inhibit ot kill microbes by interfering with key processes or
structures
Include antibacterial, antiviral, antifgunal
Antibiotics are naturally produced antimicrobials, target bacteria
o Made by fungi
Could target a structure, an enzymatic pathway
o If pathway is important, will impact bacteria
Looking for things that do not affect our cells
o Leads to challenges when trating fungal infectiosn
(Phylogenetic) Tree of life
Phylogenetics-reconstructing evolutionary history of a species or group of species
These are hypotheses
o We may get new information and have to redraw them
Will see different forms
o Diagonal format
o Goalpost format
Phylogenetic trees are diagrams that illustrate phylogenetics (evolutionary history,
relationships)
DNA Based Evolutionary Tree
No fossils for bacteria
Hard to tell them apart
We have the technology now
Some genes are highly conserved
Look at sequences and compare them
Gives us a good idea of how closely related they are
Molecular phylogenies are used for molecular biology and other types where you
can see morphological differences
Morphological differences may not be as useful as was once thought
Most of the stuff for bacteria will come down to the genetic analysis
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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