Textbook Notes (384,554)
CA (170,119)
U Windsor (786)
Business (238)
73-100 (5)
Chapter 4

73-100 Chapter 4: Intro to Data Analysis - Textbook + Lecture notes - ch. 4
Premium

2 Pages
78 Views

Department
Business
Course Code
73-100
Professor
Peter Miller

This preview shows half of the first page. Sign up to view the full 2 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 4 Displaying and Describing Categorical Data
Make a picture
- display data ! help see what you are not likely to see in table ! help plan approach to
analysis
- shows important features, patterns and relationships
- reveals extraordinary (or possible wrong) data
- best way to report data to others
Frequency Tables – shows number of cases (ex. website visits) for each category and records
totals and category names (ex. provinces)
- describe the distribution of a categorical variable – name possible categories and tell how
frequently each occurs.
Relative frequency table – displays percentages, rather than the counts, of each of the value in
each category
Charts:
- The area principle – the area occupied by a part of the graph should correspond to the
magnitude of the value it represents
- Bar charts – displays the distribution of a categorical variable, showing the counts for each
category next to each other for easy comparison
- more accurate visual impression of the distribution
- common base, freestanding, spaces in-between
- horizontal or vertical
- Relative frequency bar chart – replacing counts with percentages, draws attention to
proportion
- Pie Charts – severe perceptual problems, hard to interpret – try not to use them!
Categorical Data Condition – that the data are counts or percentages of individuals in
categories
- make sure categories don’t overlap
** best perception of – positions of common scale (ex. plot or bar graph), comparing 2 separate
images with same scale, length
worst perception – volume, colour, angles, area
Contingency tables – shows how individuals are distributed along each variable, depending on
(contingent on), the value of the other variable
- marginal distribution – in a contingency table, the distribution of either variable alone.
The counts or percentages are the totals found n the margins (usually the right-most column
or bottom row) of the table.
- each cell – gives the count for a combination of values of the two variables
- total percentage, row percentage, column percentage
Conditional distribution – shows the distribution of one variable for just those cases that satisfy
a condition on another
Independent variable – when the distribution of one variable is the same for all categories of
another, in a contingency table (no association between the variables)
Segmented Bar Charts – treats each bar as the “whole and divides it proportionally into
segments corresponding to the percentage in each group

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 4 Displaying and Describing Categorical Data Make a picture display data help see what you are not likely to see in table help plan approach to analysis shows important features, patterns and relationships reveals extraordinary (or possible wrong) data best way to report data to others Frequency Tables shows number of cases (ex. website visits) for each category and records totals and category names (ex. provinces) describe the distribution of a categorical variable name possible categories and tell how frequently each occurs. Relative frequency table displays percentages, rather than the counts, of each of the value in each category Charts: The area principle the area occupied by a part of the graph should correspond to the magnitude of the value it represents Bar charts displays the distribution of a categorical variable, showing the counts for each category next to each other for easy comparison more accurate visual impression of the distribution common base, freestanding, spaces inbetween horizontal or vertical Relative frequency bar chart replacing counts with percentages, draws attention to proportion Pie Charts severe perceptual problems, hard to interpret try not to use them! Categorical Data Condition that the data are counts or percentages of individuals in categories make sure categories dont overlap ** best perception of positions of common scale (ex. plot or bar graph), comparing 2 separate images with same scale, length worst perception volume, colour, angles, area Contingency tables shows how individuals are distributed along each variable, depending on (contingent on), the value of the other variable marginal distribution in a contingency table, the distribution of either variable alone. The counts or percentages are the totals found n the margins (usually the rightmost column or bottom row) of the table. each cell gives the count for a combination of values of the two variables total percentage, row percentage, column percentage Conditional distribution shows the distribution of one variable for just those cases that satisfy a condition on another Independent variable when the distribution of one variable is the same for all categories of another, in a contingency table (no association between the variables) Segmented Bar Charts treats each bar as the whole and divides it proportionally into segments corresponding to the percentage in each group
More Less
Unlock Document


Only half of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit