Chapter 11: Motivating Employees 2012-12-17 7:39 AM
• What are the similarities and differences between Taylor’s time-motion studies and Mayo’s
• How did Mayo’s findings influence specific management?
• Can you draw a diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? Label and describe the parts.
• Explain the differences between Herzberg’s motivators and hygien e factors.
• Relate job enrichment to Herzberg’s motivating factors.
• Briefly describe the managerial attitudes behind Theories X and Y.
• Explain goal-setting theory.
• Evaluate expectancy theory. Can you think of situations in which expectancy theory could
apply to your efforts or lack of effort?
• Explain the principles of equity theory
• What are steps firms can take to increase internal communications and thus motivation?
• What problems may emerge when trying to implement participative management?
• Why is it important today to adjust motivational styles to individual employees?
Learning Objective #1: Relate the significance of Taylor’s scientific management and the Hawthorne
studies to management.
• Human efficiency engineer Frederick Taylor was one of the first people to study
management. He did time -motion studies to learn the most efficient way of doing a job
and then trained workers in those procedures.
• What led to management theories that stress human factors of motivation?
o The greatest impact on motiv ation theory was generated by the Hawthorne studies
in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In these studies, Elton Mayo found that human
factors such as feelings of involvement and participation led to greater productivity
gains than did physical changes in th e workplace.
Learning Objective #2: Identify the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and relate their
importance to employee motivation.
• Abraham Maslow studied basic human motivation and found that motivation was based on
needs. He said that a person with an unfilled need would be motivated to satisfy it and
that a satisfied need no longer served as motivation.
• What were the various levels of need identified by Maslow?
o Starting at the bottom of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and going to the top, the
levels of need are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self -actualization.
• Can managers use Maslow’s theory?
o Yes, they can recognize what unmet needs a person has and design work so that it
satisfies those needs.
Learning Objective #3: Distinguish between motivators & hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.
• Frederick Herzberg found that some factors are motivators and other are hygiene (or
maintenance) factors. Hygiene factors cause job dissatisfaction if missing, but are not
motivators if present.
• What are the factors called motivators?
o The work itself, achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, and
• What are hygiene (maintenance) factors?
o Factors that don’t motivate but must be present for employee satisfaction, such as
company policies, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary.
Learning Objective #4: Explain how job enrichment affects employee motivation and performance.
• Job enrichment describes efforts to make jobs more interesting.
• What characteristics of w ork affect motivation and performance?
o Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback • Name 2 forms of job enrichment that increase motivation.
o Job enlargement, jo