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Chapter 3

Kinesiology 95-211 Chapter 3: Chapter 3 notes psych

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Chapter 3: Motivational and Behavioural Change September 17, 2015
Motivation – the internal processes, such as your needs, thoughts and emotions – that give your
behaviour energy and direction
Approaches to Understanding Motivation for Behavioural Change
1. Behavioural Approaches
Behavioural approach – an approach to understanding motivated behaviour that focuses
on conditioning or learning from the environment
1. Operant conditioning – associated behaviours with consequences learned through
reinforcement – any factor associated with and increases frequency of behaviour or
punishment – any factor that decreases the probability of a behaviour recurring
Positive reinforcement – involves any factor usually reward, that increases behaviour
Negative reinforcement – involves removal of any factor – aversive like criticism that
increases behaviour – punishment is any factor that decreases behaviour
2. Vicarious conditioning – results from observing others – changes we observe in others
are valued by us
3. Operant strategies – self-monitoring effective for developing and maintaining skills –
recording own behaviour in specific situations
2. Cognitive Approaches
Cognitive approach – an approach to understanding motivated behaviour that
emphasizes the role of thought patterns and cognitive habits
Individual viewed as active participant – their interpretation of the external environment
exerting powerful influence on behaviour
Belief that automatic thought processes, cognitive errors and core beliefs can be altered
with continued persistence
Alteration of thought patterns based on recognition and identification – then challenged
and changed to reflect reality more accurately
Uses rational thought, logic and empiricism to reform thought patterns
3. Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches
Cognitive-behavioural approaches – approaches to understanding motivated behaviour
that outline the reciprocal influence between cognitions and behaviour
Believed cognitions influence out emotions and behaviour
And behaviour can affect thought patterns and emotions
Approaches include self-monitoring, goal setting, feedback and decision making –
increase self-reported exercise behaviour
Models of Motivation and Behavioural Change
ParticipACTION and MoveU based on understanding of factors that shape behavioural
decisions people make about health
1. Transtheoretical Model

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Five stages individual moves through when initiating and adopting physical activity:
Precontemplation – stage of CHANGE in which individuals do not consider exercising
in the next 6 months
Contemplation – stage of CHANGE in which individuals are considering exercising in
the next 6 months
Preparation – stage of CHANGE in which individuals have taken small steps toward
becoming more physically active
Action – stage of CHANGE in which individuals have begun exercising in the past 6
Maintenance – stage of CHANGE in which individuals exercise and have done so for
more than 6 months
Not always linear and enter at any stage and relapse to previous stage
First 2 stages defined by individual’s intent to engage in physical activity – could be
lacking knowledge or tried in the past but failed to keep it up
Preparation combines intentional and behavioural criteria – taken some action to get them
ready to be physically active – consulted physician, looked online to find exercise or
sport facilities convenient to work or home
Last 2 stages defined by behavioural criteria, length of time performing the behaviour at
appropriate level
Factors Influencing Stage Progression
Self-efficacy – beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action
required to produce given attainments
Increases with stage progression
Decisional balance – advantages and disadvantages of behavioural change
Disadvantages outweigh benefits for inactive, opposite for active
Processes of change – strategies that individuals use to progress through the stages of
Dimensions that serve as targets for intervention programs:
1. Experiential or cognitive processes – strategies to help individual modify thought patterns
Used in pre-activity stages, experiential processes include seeking information,
reconsidering the consequences of inactivity, expressing feelings about inactivity and
evaluating the consequences of engaging in physical activity for others – spouse, children
2. Behavioural processes – increased social support for behavioural engagement, use of
rewards and reinforcement, and use of appropriate cues for maintaining behaviour – running
shoes placed by front door
Research on the Transtheoretical Model in Exercise Psychology
Mental illness reported greater self-efficacy and perceived benefits to engaging in
physical activity if in action or maintenance stage
Information targeted for individual stage of change increased their physical activity
Attract the attention of individuals by exposing them to messages specific to their
motivation to act
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