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Canada (162,165)
Psychology (184)
46-115 (36)
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Chapter 2

Psychology 46-115 Chapter 2: 46-115 Notes on Research Methods

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-115
Professor
Ken Cramer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: Research Methods Why we need research designs • Facilitated communication  without research, educated and intelligent people will be fooled • Can’t rely on common sense and experience because are limited for the purposes of testing hypotheses • Prefrontal lobotomy  an effective treatment for schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders • Heuristics  mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense • Representativeness  heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype • Base rate  how common a behaviour or characteristic is • Availability  estimate the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds (how “available” it is in our memories) • Cognitive biases  systematic errors in thinking • Hindsight bias  overestimate how well we could have successfully forecast known outcomes (ex. “I knew it!”) • Overconfidence  overestimate our ability to make correct predictions The Scientific Method: Toolbox of Skills • Naturalistic observation  watching behaviour in real-worlds settings (ex. Goodall) • Advantage and disadvantage of naturalistic designs: o Pros: external validity  we can generalize our findings to real-world settings o Cons: internal validity  we can draw cause-and-effect inferences • Case Study  examine either one person or a small number of people for a long time o Advantage  existence proofs  demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur o Disadvantage  can lead to misleading/wrong conclusions • Correlational design  examines which two variables are associated o Can be positive, zero, or negative o Range from -1.0 to 1.0 o To find out how much of one variable is accounted for by another variable, we square the correlation • Scatterplot  a grouping of points on a 2D graph • Illusory correlation  a statistical association between two variables where none exists (ex. the moon and violent crimes/suicides) • Correlation vs. Causation o Correlation  determining whether two (or more) variables are related o Causation  the action of causing o To see if they’re related doesn’t IT IS THE CAUSE • Experimental Designs o Experiment  consists of random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable o Random assignment  randomly sorts participants into one of two groups o Experime
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