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Ken Cramer (11)
Chapter 3

Psychology 46-115 Chapter 3: 46-115 Notes on Biological Psychology

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Ken Cramer

Chapter 3: Biological Psychology (Page 112 – 153) Nerve Cells (page 114) • Neurons  nerve cells specialized for communication with each other • Dendrites  branches receiving information from neurons • Cell body  central region of a neuron to maintain the cell (aka a nucleus) • Axons  sending messages from one neuron to another; thinner than dendrites • Synapses  spaces between two connecting neurons where messages are sent • Synaptic cleft  spaces between two connecting neurons where messages are released • Synaptic vesicles  spheres that contain neurotransmitters The Brain and Behaviour • Central nervous system  composed of the brain and spinal cord o Divided into the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system  all nerves outside of central nervous system o Divided into the somatic system and the autonomic nervous system Forebrain • Highly developed area; advanced intellectual abilities • Cerebral cortex  outermost part of the forebrain; responsible for high brain function (ex. think, talk, reason) o Divided into two cerebral hemispheres • Corpus callosum  a “bridge” that connects two hemispheres • Frontal Lobe  front of cerebral cortex; contains motor cortex and prefrontal cortex o Responsible for motor function, language, and memory o Motor cortex  responsible for body movements (Penfield) o Prefrontal cortex  responsible for thinking, planning, and language (also mood, personality, and self-awareness)  Somewhere in prefrontal cortex, Broca’s area is key to language production • Parietal Lobe  upper middle part of cerebral cortex, behind frontal lobe o Responsible for touch and spatial perception • Temporal Lobe  located below the frontal lobe and parietal lobe o Responsible for hearing, understanding language, storing autobiographical memory o Top of temporal lobe is auditory cortex o Language area of temporal lobe is Wernicke’s area (includes the lower parietal lobe) o Lower part contains autobiographical memory storage • Occipital Lobe  very back of the brain; containing the visual cortex o Responsible for our vision • Sensory cortex  sight, hearing, touch o Information is sent to each main cortex o Primary visual cortex is specific to vision, primary auditory cortex to hearing, and primary sensory cortex to tough and body position o Sensory information travels to association cortexes to pull together simpler functions to perform more complex functions • Basal ganglia  buried in forebrain to control movements • Thalamus  gateway to cerebral cortex The Brain Stem • Brain stem  connects with the forebrain and contains medulla, midbrain and pons • Midbrain  lies between forebrain and hindbrain o Contains the substantia nigra (movement), superior colliculus (tracks visual stimuli), a
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