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46-115 (36)
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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 key terms.docx

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School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
46-115
Professor
Ken Cramer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter2: ResearchMethods – KeyTerms Prefrontal lobotomy: surgical procedure that severs fibres connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus Heuristic: mental shortcut that helps us streamline our thinking and make sense of our world Representativeness Heuristic: heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype Base rate: how common a characteristic or behaviour is in the general population Availability heuristic:heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds Cognitive biases: systematic errors in thinking Hindsight bias: tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes Overconfidence: tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions Naturalistic Observation: watching behaviour in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation External validity: extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings Internal validity: extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study Case study: research design that examine one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period Existence proof: demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Random selection: procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate Reliability:consistency of measurement Validity: extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure Response set: tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items Correlational design: research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated Scatterplot: grouping of points on a two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person’s data Illusory correlation : perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exist Experiment: research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable Random assignment: randomly sorting participants into groups Control group: in an expe
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