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Chapter 13

Psychology 46-116 Chapter 13: Notes on Social Psychology

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University of Windsor
Ken Cramer

Chapter 13 Social PsychologyThe study of how people influence others behaviour beliefs and attitudes for good and badSocial Psychology is important for one reason Human beings are a highly social speciesNeed to Belong Theoryhumans have a biologically based need for interpersonal connectionsAttributionsassigning causes to behaviour trying to figure out why others or we did somethingFundamental Attribution Errortendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other peoples behaviourWhen a situation is unclear we seek guidance about what to believe and how to actSocial Comparison Theorywe seek to evaluate our beliefs abilities and reactions by comparing them with those of othersMass Hysteriacontagious outbreak of irrational behaviour that spreads like a flu epidemicSocial Influence Conformity and ObedienceConformitytendency of people to alter their behaviour as a result of group pressureSolomon Asch 1955the Asch Paradigm the line test of conformityParametric Studieswhen an experimenter systematically manipulates the independent variable to observe its effects on the dependent variableConformity was influenced by these independent variablesoUnanimityif all confederates give wrong answers the subject is more likely to conform if one confederate gave the right response level of conformity drops by 34oDifference in the wrong answerknowing that someone else in the group different from the majority the subject is less likely to conformoSizethe size of the majority make a difference only up to 56 subjectsConformity The Autokinetic Effecta phenomenon of human visual perception where a stationary small point of light in a dark environment appears to move frequent cause of UFO reportsDeindividuationtendency of people to engage in atypical behaviour when stripped of their usual identitiesoA feeling of anonymity and a lack of individual responsibilityStanford Prison StudyoPhilip Zimbardo advertised for volunteers for a 2week psychological study of prison lifeoHe transformed the basement of the Stanford psychology department in Palo Alto California into a simulated prison with jail cellsoPeople were forced to dress in clothes according to assigned rolesoInstructed guards to refer to prisoners only by numbers not by names
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