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Chapter 3

Psychology 46-224 Chapter 3: Adolescence – Chapter 3 – Cognitive Foundations

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Scott Mattson

ADOLESCENCECHAPTER 3COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONSIndustrialized countries many intellectual challenges adolescents face are in the school settingPiagets TheoryOlder children know more AND think differently than younger children Mental structuresa person who thinks within a particular stage in one aspect of life should think within that stage in all other aspects as well Schememental structure for organizing and interpreting information02 SensorimotoroEx Watch an object as it moves across field of vision27 PreoperationaloEx Enchanted by fairy tales because with their limited understanding of the world these are real possibilities711 Concrete operationsoEx Water from a glass poured into another is still same volume1115 to 20 Formal OperationsoPendulum problemanswer is length of stringoThose in concrete operation would approach with random attempts changing more than one thing at a time oTransitional period from concrete to formal operations on these tasks take place from age 1114Abstract thinking Thinking in terms of symbols ideas and concepts oOften contrasted to concrete thinking things you can experience through the senses oResearch on brain development suggests capacity of abstract thinking is bases on a growth spurt in the brain in later adolescence and emerging adulthood that strengthens the connection between the frontal cortex and other parts of the brainComplex thinking takes into account multiple connections and interpretation such in the use of metaphors satire and sarcasmSelfawareness of thinking process rose from adolescents to emerging adulthood and again from emerging adulthood to midlife then decline in later adulthoodth8 grade only 13 adolescents have reached formal operationsformal operations success rate on late adolescents and adults is only 4060Post Formal ThinkingPiagets theory formal operations is the end of cognitive developmentAge 20 at the latest cognitive maturation is complete PragmatismAll these theories propose that problems faced in normal adult life often contain complexities and inconsistencies that cannot be addressed with the logic or formal operationsDialectical approachgrowing awareness that problems often have no clear solution and that two opposing strategies or points of view may have some merit Develops in emerging adulthoodsoChinese cultures are great at promoting this
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