Textbook Notes (369,054)
Canada (162,364)
Psychology (184)
46-333 (31)
Brown (16)
Chapter 7

Psychology 46-333 chapter 7 notes

7 Pages
124 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
46-333
Professor
Brown

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
States
of
Consciousness
 
 Definition
 • Consciousness
is
our
awareness
of
various
cognitive
processes,
such
as
sleeping,
dreaming,
 concentrating
and
making
decisions.
 
 William
James
 • Consciousness
is
continuous
and
always
changing
 • Consciousness
is
a
selective
process
of
attending
to
certain
stimuli
 • Each
person's
stream‐of‐consciousness
is
unique
to
the
individual.
 
 Consciousness
Allows
 Consciousness
allows
the
individual
to:
 • restrict
the
input
of
overwhelming
sensory
information
 • attend
to
certain
stimuli
 • select
important
stimuli
for
effective
functioning
 • store
meaningful
information
for
present
or
future
use
 • consider
alternatives
to
real‐world
situations
 • project
imaginary
consequences
to
our
actions
or
thoughts
 
 Freud’s
Consciousness
 Three
levels
 • the
unconscious:
all
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
that
we
are
not
and
normally
cannot
become
 aware
of;
the
domain
of
the
id
 • the
preconscious:
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
that
were
are
not
consciously
aware
of
but
can
 be
readily
called
into
awareness
 • consciousness:
our
awareness
of
our
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
 
 Alternate
Forms
of
Consciousness
 • daydreaming:
one
of
the
most
common
alternate
states
of
consciousness
we
momentarily
 escape
the
demands
of
the
real
world;
this
can
occur
without
much
effort
 • fantasy:

an
alternate
consciousness
in
which
people
work
out
their
difficulties,
image
 alternative
scenarios
to
conflicts,
and
wonder
about
or
idealize
the
world
around
them
 • circadian
rhythms:
physiological
cycles
that
repeat
every
24
hours;
sleeping
and
dreaming
 are
the
most
common
of
these
 
 Sleep
and
Dream
Measurements
 • EEG:
the
electroencephalogram
measures
brain
wave
activity
 • EMG:
the
electromyogram
measures
muscle
activity
 
 Sleep
Cycles
 • Relaxation:

 – the
period
before
sleep
when
our
muscles
begin
to
relax
 – we
lose
concentration
and
alertness
of
our
environment
 • Stage
1:

 – lasts
for
about
10
minutes
 – dominated
by
theta
waves
of
3‐7
cycles
per
second
(CPS)
 
 • Stage
2:

 – similar
to
Stage
1
with
theta
wave
 – also
has
short
bursts
of
12‐16
CPS
sleep
spindles
 
 • Stage
3:

 – deep
sleep
composed
of
delta
waves
(1‐2
CPS)
20‐50%
of
the
time
 
 • Stage
4:

 – deep
sleep
dominated
by
delta
waves
 
 • REM
sleep:

 – rapid
eye
movement
sleep

 – where
our
most
vivid
dreams
occur
 
 REM
Sleep
and
Dreaming
 • Sleepers
awakened
during
REM
sleep
recount
the
most
vivid,
lifelike
dreams
 • Everyone
dreams
for
90‐120
minutes
per
night
 • Our
dreams
get
longer
in
length
as
the
night
progresses
and
REM
sleep
extends
 
 Freud
on
Dreams
 • Believed
that
all
dreams
are
wish
fulfillments
even
nightmares
 • Originate
in
our
unconscious
mind
which
is
governed
by
the
id,
the
child
within
us
 • Are
uncensored
expressions
of
our
thoughts,
feelings
and
motives
 • The
id
and
our
unconscious
operate
on
the
pleasure
principle,
gaining
pleasure
from
 expressing
these
thoughts
and
feelings
 
 Preconscious
and
Censorship
 • Freud
called
the
dream
content
of
the
unconscious
mind
the
latent
content
 • As
we
reach
preconsciousness,
our
mind
attempts
to
alter
the
dream
content
so
it
is
not
so
 damaging
to
our
ego,
our
self‐concept
 • In
the
preconscious,
a
censorship
system
alters
the
dream
content
using
several
techniques
 
 Censorship
Techniques
 • Condensation:
condensing
several
dream
elements
into
a
composite
of
one
dream
element
 • Symbolism:
using
other
objects
or
people
to
represent
something
else
 • Displacement:
changing
the
emphasis
or
focus
of
certain
dream
elements
onto
other,
more
 insignificant
elements
 
 Secondary
Revision
 • The
preconscious
operates
on
the
unpleasure
principle
in
which
we
gain
pleasure
through
 censoring
information
 • At
this
point,
the
dream
goes
through
secondary
revision
by
the
preconscious
 • As
we
reach
consciousness
and
recollect
our
dream,
we
are
remembering
what
Freud
calls
 the
manifest
content

 
 Dream
Work
and
Dream
Analysis
 • The
process
of
moving
from
the
latent
content
to
the
manifest
content
is
what
Freud
called
 the
dream
work
 • The
goal
of
dream
analysis
is
to
get
from
the
manifest
content
to
the
real
or
latent
content
of
 the
dream.
 

 Insomnia
 • Insomnia
is
characterized
by
difficulty
in
falling
asleep
or
remaining
asleep
throughout
the
 night
 • 30
million
insomniacs
 • The
cause
of
their
sleeping
disorder
is
unknown
 • Evidence
indicates
insomnia
is
more
prevalent
in
women
and
the
elderly
 • Attempts
to
control
insomnia
with
medication
usually
does
more
harm
than
good;
the
body
 builds
up
a
tolerance
to
the
medication
and
a
"rebound
effect"
when
the
medication
is
 discontinued
makes
the
insomnia
worse
 
 
 Sleep
Apnea
 • Sleep
apnea
is
a
disorder
characterized
by
breathing
difficulty
during
the
night
and
feelings
 of
exhaustion
during
the
day
 • The
episodes
usually
occur
in
short
periods
and
there
are
few
long
term
dangers
 • Approximately
38,000
cardiovascular
deaths
each
year
are
a
result
of
sleep
apnea
 • Those
most
susceptible
to
sleep
apnea
are
obese
males
during
middle
age
 • Also
suspected
as
a
cause
of
SIDS
 • Consequences
of
sleep
apnea
include
memory
loss,
hypertension,
heart
disease
and
stroke
 
 Narcolepsy
 • Narcolepsy
is
a
hereditary
sleep
disorder
characterized
by
sudden
nodding
off
during
the
day
 and
sudden
loss
of
muscle
tone
following
moments
of
emotional
excitement.
 • Can
be
dangerous
because
of
the
muscle
paralysis
that
accompanies
the
disorder
 • The
cause
of
narcolepsy
is
unknown
and
it
is
highly
resistant
to
treatment
 
 Night
Terrors
 • Night
terrors
or
sleep
terrors
affect
children
between
4‐12
years
old
 • Different
from
nightmares
 • Children
suffering
from
night
terrors
typically
sit
up
in
bed
and
begin
screaming
 • Can
be
awakened
from
nightmares
but
not
night
terrors
 • Usually
not
remembered
in
the
morning
 • Usually
do
not
occur
past
childhood
 
 Sleepwalking
 • Sleepwalking
involves
getting
out
of
bed
and
moving
around;
it
can
involve
engaging
in
 complex
behaviors
while
asleep
 • Sleepwalking
affects
up
to
17%
of
children,
usually
between
8‐12
years
old;
adult
prevalence
 is
approximately
4%
 • Treatment
includes
the
use
of
antidepressants
or
benzodiazepine
 • Hypnosis
has
also
helped
make
sleepwalking
less
likely
 
 Incubus
Attack
 • Incubus
attacks
are
characterized
by
sleep
paralysis
with
hypnagogic
hallucinations
 • 15%
to
40%
of
Americans
will
experience
at
least
one
episode;
recurrent
episodes
afflict
4%
 of
the
population
 • More
common
in
women
than
men,
and
among
younger
people
 • Treatment
involves
cognitive
behavior
therapy
 • The
goal
of
treatment
is
sleep
consolidation—remaining
asleep
throughout
the
night
without
 waking
up
 
 Sensory
Deprivation
 • Sensory
deprivation
involves
extreme
reduction
of
sensory
stimuli
 • Studied
at
McGill
University
in
Montreal
by
having
volunteers
spend
days
at
a
time
in
special
 sensory
deprivation
chambers
 • Effects
include:
 – hallucinations
 – impaired
judgment
 – irritability
 
 Meditation
 • Defined
as
various
methods
of
concentration,
reflection
or
focusing
of
thoughts
undertaken
 to
suppress
the
activity
of
the
sympathetic
nervous
system
 • Used
to
treat
certain
medical
problems
and
offers
physiological
benefits
 • Additional
benefits
include
emotional
and
spiritual
awareness,
well‐being
and
relaxation
 
 Types
of
Meditation
 • Zen
meditation
focuses
on
respiration
 • Sufism
involves
frenzied
dancing
and
prayer;
 • Transcendental
meditation
has
its
participants
intone
a
mantra
(special
sounds
selected
by
 the
TM
teacher)
 
 Hypnosis
 • A
trancelike
state
in
which
a
person
responds
readily
to
suggestions
 • Sigmund
Freud
studied
hypnosis
under
Jean
Martin
Charcot
in
Paris
at
the
turn
of
the
 century
and
incorporated
it
as
part
of
psychoanalysis
 • Involves
a
state
of
increased
suggestibility,
focused
attention
and
an
inability
to
act
 independently
 
 Specifics
of
Hypnosis
 • Under
hypnosis,
subjects
can
focus
their
attention
on
certain
behaviors
or
thoughts
and
 usually
accept
distortions
of
realit
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit