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Psychology 46-333 emotion notes (ch 13)

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-333
Professor
Brown
Semester
Summer

Description
Emotion
 
 Definition
 • emotion
is
defined
as
feeling
that
underlies
behavior,
such
as
happiness
 • it
can
additionally
be
seen
as
a
response
when,
for
example,
a
person
sees
a
particular
situation
as
 fearful
or
threatening,
like
public
speaking
 • it
can
also
be
seen
as
a
motivation
when
emotional
excitement
accompanies
satisfying
a
 physiological
state,
like
delight
when
you
get
to
eat
chocolate
as
a
reward
for
a
behavior.
 
 Theories
of
Emotion
 • there
are
six
main
theories
of
emotion:
 • the
James­Lange
theory
states
that
body
changes
come
before
perceived
emotions
 – if
a
person
is
walking
along
and
sees
a
snake,
according
to
James‐Lange,
they
will
run
away
 and
then
feel
afraid
 • the
Cannon­Bard
theory
states
that
body
changes
and
emotions
occur
simultaneously
 – a
person
would
see
the
snake,
feel
afraid
and
run
away
at
the
same
time
 • the
Schacter­Singer
(or
cognitive
theory
or
two­factor
theory)
states
that
how
we
perceive
a
 situations
dictates
what
emotions
we
will
feel;
it
is
a
combination
of
physical
responses
and
 cognitive
motivation
 – if
a
person
is
fearful
a
snakes,
coming
upon
a
snake
on
a
trail
will
provoke
fear
as
an
emotion;
 if
he
is
not
afraid
of
snakes,
he
will
not
feel
fear
 • the
opponent
process
theory
states
that
when
we
have
an
emotional
response,
it
is
always
 accompanied
by
the
opposite
emotion
as
well
 – for
example,
the
joy
of
having
your
friends
throw
you
a
surprise
18th
birthday
party
will
give
 way
briefly
to
sadness
when
the
event
is
over.
 • the
theory
of
cognitive
dissonance
is
proposed
by
Leon
Festinger.
 – Festinger
states
that
when
we
have
two
contradictory
beliefs
we
feel
anxiety
 • for
example,
we
know
how
to
fix
our
car
but
we
bring
it
to
a
mechanic
to
fix
 – we
will
attempt
to
reduce
our
anxiety,
called
dissonance
reduction,
by
coming
up
with
a
reason
 for
our
actions
 • we
might
justify
the
mechanic
working
on
our
car
because
we
"don't
have
the
proper
 tools"
or
"don't
have
the
time
to
fix
it.”
 - cognitive
dissonance
also
occurs
when
our
thoughts
and
behaviors
are
inconsistent
 • a
person
knows
smoking
cigarettes
is
bad
for
his
health
but
smokes
them
anyway
 • he
may
rationalize
this
by
saying
"he's
not
smoking
that
much"
or
"evidence
is
 contradictory
on
the
effects
of
smoking
on
health"
 • Kurt
Lewin
believes
that
we
experience
anxiety
whenever
we
are
confronted
with
positive
and

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