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Chapter 8

Psychology 46-333 Chapter 8 Notes

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Chapter 8 Adolescent Physical Development Puberty: all the hormonal and physical changes that contribute to sexual maturity. Takes on an average of five years and today is typically an early teenage change. PubertyTrends TheSecular ( long-term)Trend The regular decline in the age of puberty (signaled by menarche) in developing countries. In 1830, the average age of menarche in Northern Europe was over 17. Today, the age has fallen to under 13. The Hormonal Programmers TwoSystems: Androgens - produced by adrenal glands Promote growth of hair; influence skin changes; program sexual desire. Androgens begin secretion in middle childhood. HPGAxis (Hypothalamic, Pituitary,Gonad) Main system programming the body changes. Hypothalamus triggers the pituitary to secrete its hormones, which in turn, triggers the gonads to secrete their hormones, which produce major body changes. Gonads Testes: testosterone Ovaries: estrogen Classifying the PhysicalChanges PrimarySexualCharacteristics Changes directly involved in reproduction Growth of uterus, maturation of the ovaries, onset of menarche. Growth of penis, testes, onset of spermache SecondarySexualCharacteristics Physical changes not related to reproduction Hair growth, voice changes, acne, breast development GrowthSpurt Dramatic increase in weight and height Opposite of the cephalocaudal sequence PubertyTimetables: Individual Differences Influences Genetics Weight Nutrition Stress Feelings about Puberty Basic Principle: changes are exciting and frightening; reactions depend on social norms and reactions of family Maturing Early Maturing Early: Possible Problems forGirls (Statistical Tendencies) May become involved with older friends May demonstrate “mature teenage behaviors” Risk of pregnancy Popularity among boys Risk of depression Self-consciousness Body Image Issues Susan Harter’s research Feelings of competence in 5 domains relates to overall self-esteem Scholastic competence, behavioral conduct, athletic skills, peer likeability, appearance For adolescents, contentment with one’s appearance outweighs any other cat
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