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Chapter 6

Psychology 46-333 chapter 6 (personality)

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Childhood SocioemotionalDevelopment Chapter 6 Personality 7- to8-year-oldchildren entering theConcrete OperationalStage: Becomelessegocentric Understandothershavedifferentperspectivesfrom theirown Nolongerbelievetheyarethecenter oftheuniverse Becomemoreself-aware Self-reflectandcomparethemselvestoothers Changesin self-awareness 3-year-oldselfdescriptionsfocus on externalfacts. Selfdescriptionsof 4 gradechild: • Internalandpsychological • Anchoredin feelings, abilities, and inner traits • Self-esteemdevelops • Declines during early elementary school A DeeperLook atSelf-Esteem: Erikson’sIndustry vs. InferiorityStage (Erikson)Children haveability to work towarda goal; may feelinferioriftheydo not measureup Self-Esteem:basedon the value thechild placeson a particulardimension or dimensionsof self Susan Harter’s 5 dimensions ofSelf-Esteem: PeerLikability- Peopleskillsor Popularity BehavioralConduct - PolitenessorGoodManners ScholasticCompetence - Intellectualabilitiesor academic talents PhysicalAppearance – Looks,Attractiveness AthleticSkills - PhysicalabilitiesorGoodatSports Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) EmotionalRegulation Maturingfrontallobecontributesto development of self- regulation abilities Importantforsocialand emotionalsuccess Problematictemperamentaltendencies Externalizingtendencies Internalizingtendencies Self-Esteem Distortions Lowself-esteem—internalizingproblems Overlyself-critical Inflatefailures Seefailurewhen itdoesn’t exist Learned-Helplessness Feels incapableofaffecting theoutcomeof eventsand givesup trying Common in thosewith internalizing problems CulturalDifferencesandSelf-Esteem Collectivistculturesemphasizeharmony, modesty, and theimportanceofthegroup. High self-esteem isnot a priority! Western culture emphasizesself-esteem! Aggression Anyhostileordestructiveact Peaksataboutage2½ Declines withonsetof emotional regulation (maturing frontallobes) Types:  Instrumental– initiated to achievea goal  Reactive – response to being hurt or frustrated  Relational - designed to hurt or damagesocial relationships RelationshipsandPlay Rough-and-tumble play Fantasy Play(pretendplay) Emergesat end of sensorimotor stage Initiallyparentscaffoldsor assistsin play scenarios Age4, collaborative pretend play ValueofPretendPlay Practiceadultroles Allowschildasenseof control Furthersunderstanding of socialnorms – certain play behaviorsareconsidered inappropriate(for example excessiveviolence). Offerstheadultworld insights into what children may be thinking Gendersegregatedplay isfirmly entrenched by elementary school Differences Girls Calm,moresubdued play Nurturingthemes Playcollaboratively; relateone-to-one Boys ambunctious play Superhero,warrior themes Dominanceand competition Rigidgender-specific rulesfor play WhatCausesGender-Stereotyp
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