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Creativity and Intelligence notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-339
Professor
Blais
Semester
Winter

Description
Unit
4
Notes:

Intelligence
and
Mental
Abilities
 
 Intelligence
 • there
are
many
definitions
of
intelligence
 • the
broadest
definition
of
intelligence­­the
ability
to
profit
from
experience

 – this
encompasses
book
learning
and
real‐life
skills
 • to
determine
intelligence,
intelligence
tests
are
administered
 – these
render
a
statistical
score
called
the
intelligence
quotient
(IQ)
 • intelligence
tests
can
be
group
tests
or
individual,
written
tests
or
oral
 • the
field
of
psychological
testing
is
called
psychometrics
 
 Older
Theories
 • Charles
Spearman­­believed
that
intelligence
was
like
a
well
that
flowed
through
every
action
 – our
special
intellectual
abilities
"flowed
like
streams”
 
 • Raymond
Cattell‐‐believed
that
there
were
two
clusters
of
mental
abilities:
 – crystallized
intelligence:
composed
of
reasoning,
verbal
and
numerical
abilities

 – fluid
intelligence:
spatial
and
visual
imagery,
and
rote
memory

 
 • not
quite
so
general
as
Spearman,
L.L.
and
Thelma
Thurstone
believed
that
there
were
seven
 distinct
factors
to
general
intelligence:
 – spatial
ability

 – perceptual
speed

 – numerical
ability

 – verbal
meaning

 – memory

 – word
fluency

 – reasoning
 
 Newer
Theories
 • Robert
Sternberg‐‐proposed
the
triarchic
theory
of
intelligence
 • intelligence
is
comprised
of
three
kinds
of
intelligence:
 – componential
intelligence:
most
of
the
abilities
traditionally
defined
as
intelligence,
such
as
the
 Thurstones

 – experiential
intelligence:
the
ability
to
adjust
to
new
experiences,
adapt
and
gain
insights
on
 new
experiences

 – contextual
intelligence:
matching
situations
to
accentuate
your
strengths
and
minimize
your
 weaknesses

 
 • perhaps
the
most
influential
modern
theorist
is
Howard
Gardner.
Gardner
believes
in
seven,
 distinct
multiple
intelligences:
 – logical­mathematical
intelligence
(math
and
science‐oriented)

 – linguistic
intelligence
(language
skills‐oriented)

 – spatial
intelligence
(artists)

 – musical
intelligence
(musicians)

 – bodily­kinesthetic
intelligence
(athletes
and
dancers)

 – interpersonal
intelligence
(between
two
people)

 – intrapersonal
intelligence
(understanding
ourselves)

 
 Intelligence
Tests
 • the
first
test
of
intelligence
was
the
Binet‐Simon
Scale
in
1905
 – this
was
devised
by
Alfred
Binet
and
Theodore
Simon
 – it
consisted
of
30
tests
arranged
in
order
of
increasing
difficulty
 – Binet
developed
the
concept
of
mental
age
 • this
was
later
used
in
1916
by
L.M.
Terman
in
devising
the
intelligence
quotient
or
IQ
 • Terman
adapted
the
Binet‐Simon
scale
while
working
at
Stanford
University
 – this
became
the
now
famous
Stanford‐Binet
Intelligence
Test,
currently
in
its
fourth
edition
 
 • the
formula
for
IQ
is
mental
age
divided
by
chronological
age
times
100
 • average
IQ
is
100
 – if
someone
was
17
years
old
chronologically
and
had
a
mental
age
of
17,
17
divided
by
17
is
1,
 times
100
would
be
100
 • this
formula
became
somewhat
problematic
because
a
child's
and,
especially
an
adult's,
 intellectual
growth
is
not
orderly.
 
 • David
Weschler
developed
his
own
set
of
tests
 – one
for
adults
(16
years
and
older)
called
the
WAIS‐III
(Weschler
Adult
Intelligence
Scale
3rd
 Edition)
 – one
for
children
(ages
5‐16)
called
the
WISC‐III
(Weschler
Intelligence
Scale
for
Children
3rd
 Edition)
 – one
for
preschoolers
called
the
WPPI‐R
(Weschler
Preschool
and
Primary
Scale
of
Intelligence
 Revised)
 • both
of
these
yield
individual
scores
for
verbal
and
performance
information
 • Weschler
based
his
IQ
scores
on
a
normal
distribution
or
bell‐shaped
curve
 – on
his
tests,
the
standard
deviation
is
15,
meaning
that
68%
of
the
population
will
fall
within
 85
and
115,
or
1
standard
deviation;
95%
will
fall
within
2
standard
deviations,
and
99.7%
 within
3
standard
deviations
 • for
the
WAIS‐III
and
WISC‐III
 – verbal
subscales
include
vocabulary,
general
knowledge,
comprehension,
arithmetic,
 similarities
and
digit
span
 – performance
subscales
include
picture
completion,
block
design,
picture
arrangement,
object
 assembly,
coding
(WISC‐III
only),
digit
symbol
(WAIS‐III
only)
and
mazes
(WISC‐III
only)
 
 Validity
 • in
examining
intelligence
tests,
it
is
important
that
they
are
both
valid
and
reliable
 • validity
is
the
ability
of
a
test
to
measure
what
it
intends
to
measure
 – face
validity
refers
to
the
test
appearing
to
measure
what
it
is
designed
to
measure
 – content
validity
asks
is
the
sample
of
questions
is
large
enough
and
representative
enough
to
 measure
what
it
intends
to
measure
 – criterion
validity
refers
to
that
fact
that
scores
on
this
measuring
instrument
are
consistent
 with
subjects'
scores
on
other
similar
instruments
(e.g.
a
subject
scores
roughly
the
same
on
 two
or
more
intelligence
tests)
 – predictive
validity
predicts
how
well
an
individual
will
do
on
a
similar
test
of
knowledge
or
 skill
 – construct
(or
convergent)
validity
asks
More Less

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