• Personality Disorder – an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates
markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an
onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or
Personality Traits – enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and
thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of
social and personal contexts.
The DSM-IV lists 10 personality disorders.
Personality Disorders: Individual Syndromes.
• Paranoid Personality Disorder – the defining trait is suspiciousness. Found to be
significantly more common among the biological relatives of schizophrenics than in the
population at large.
• Schizotypal Personality Disorder – person will seem odd in his or her speech, behavior,
thinking, and/or, perception, but not odd enough for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. May show
magical thinking, claiming that they can predict the future, read the thoughts of others, etc.
People with this are more common when some family member has been diagnosed with
schizophrenia. Tend to respond to the same medication as schizos.
• Schizoid Personality Disorder – defined by one fundamental eccentricity, a preference for
being alone (social withdrawal). Deficient in the capacity to experience social warmth or any
deep feelings and are unable to form attachments. Rarely marry, have few friends, and seem
indifferent to praise or criticism from others. May appear absent-minded. They do NOT
show the unusual thoughts, behaviors, or speech patterns seen in schizotypal. They may be
quite successful in their work if it requires little social contact.
• Avoidant Personality Disorder – also marked by social withdrawal…but here, it is because
of a fear of rejection. Essential feature is a hypersensitivity to any possibility of rejection,
humiliation, or shame. For theses people, it is supremely difficult to make friends. Low self-
esteem, they feel depressed and angry at themselves for their social failure.
• Dependent Personality Disorder – defining characteristic is dependency on others. Fearful
or incapable of making their own decisions.
• Borderline Personality Disorder – first proposed by psychodynamic theorists. Has 4 core
Difficulties in establishing a secure self-identity.
Difficulty in controlling anger and other emotions.
• Histrionic Personality Disorder – essential feature is self-dramatization – the exaggerated
display of emotion. These displays are often manipulative, aimed at attracting attention and
sympathy. Will ‘faint’ at the sight of blood, will dominate an entire dinner party with the tale
of their recent faith healing, will be so ‘overcome’ with emotion during a sad movie that they
have to be taken home immediately, etc… interpersonal relationships are usually fragile.
1 Vain, shallow, self-dramatizing, immature, over-dependent, and selfish. More often in
• Narcissistic Personality Disorder –essential feature is a grandiose sense of self-importance,
often combined with periodic feelings of inferiority. Will often brag of their talents. This
self-love is accompanied by a low self-esteem. Demand a great deal from other: affection,
sympathy, and favors. Yet they give little in return.
• Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder – excessi