• Psychoses – a class of psychological disorders in which reality contact-the capacity to
perceive, process, and respond to environmental stimuli in an adaptive manner-is radically
impaired, with the result that the person sometimes cannot meet even the most ordinary
demands of life. 3 main groups:
Mood Disorders – disturbances in mood.
Schizophrenia – disturbance of thought.
Delusional Disorder – limited system of delusions.
• Schizophrenia – the label given to a group of psychoses in which deterioration of functioning
is marked by sever distortion of thought, perception, and mood, by bizarre behavior, and by
social withdrawal. Men are more likely to develop.
Symptoms of Schiz:
1) Delusions 4) Disorganized or Catatonic Behavior.
2) Hallucinations 5) Negative Symptoms - reduction of
3) Disorganized speech functions such as language or goal-
Must show 2 of these for at least 6 months in order to be diagnosed as schizophrenia.
Delusions – firmly held beliefs that have no basis in reality. Categories of Delusions:
1) Delusions of Persecution – one is being plotted against, spied upon, threatened,
interfered with, etc.
2) *Delusions of Control (aka Influence) – other people, forces, or perhaps
extraterrestrial beings are controlling one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions, often by
means of electronic devices.
3) Delusions of Reference – one is being referred to by events or stimuli that in fact
have nothing to do with one.
4) Delusions of Sin and Guilt – one has committed ‘the unpardonable sin’
5) Hypochondriacal Delusions – one is suffering from a hideous physical disease.
6) Nihilistic Delusions – one or others or the whole world has ceased to exist.
7) Delusions of Grandeur – one is an extremely famous and powerful person.
Some schizos believe their thoughts are being tampered with. These are related to
Delusions of Control:
* A) Thought Broadcasting – one’s thoughts are being broadcast to the outside world.
B) Thought Insertion – other people are inserting thoughts into one’s head.
C) Thought Withdrawal – other people are removing thoughts from one’s head.
Schizo’s experience what is called Blocking – in the middle of talking about something, they
suddenly fall silent, with no recollection whatsoever of what they were talking about.
• Loosening of Associations – ideas jump from one track to another, one that is indirectly
related, or to one that is completely unrelated, with the result that the person wanders further
and further from the topic.
• Poverty of Content – the person uses many words, all grammatically correct, but
• Neologisms – speech pattern in which new words are formed by combining parts of two or
more regular words or in which common words are used in a unique fashion.
1 • Clanging – the juxtaposition of words that have no relation to one another beyond the fact
that they rhyme or sound alike.
• Word Salad – words and phrases are combined in what appears to be a completely
disorganized fashion. Suggests no effort to communicate. The ultimate in schizophrenic
• Hallucinations – perceiving things that are not there. These perceptions, occur in the absence
of any appropriate external stimulus.
• Blunted Affect – reduced emotional