Psychology 46-333 motivation notes

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3330
Professor
Motivation(and(Emotion(
!
!
Drives(
motivation‐‐a!specific!need,!desire!or!want!that!prompts!goal‐directed!behavior!
!
drives‐‐goal‐directed!tendencies!based!on!a!change!in!an!organism's!biological!state!
for!example,!you!are!deprived!of!nutrition!and!you!will!become!hungry.!Hunger!then!is!a!
primary!drive!
primary.drives‐‐unlearned,!innate!drives!
secondary.drives‐‐learned!and!acquired!through!experience.!
!
research!has!been!conducted!to!determine!what!are!our!most!important!primary!drives!
rats!were!placed!in!a!box!and!given!access!to!a!second!box!via!an!electrified!grid!
results!from!this!study!indicate!that!the!following!are!to!top!five!motivators!(or!the!top!five!things!
that!would!cause!rats!to!go!from!box!A!to!box!B):!
1. !!
2. !!
3. !!
4. !!
5. !
!
Instincts(
drives!are!different!from!instincts(in!that!instincts!are!unchanging!sequences!of!behavior!that!are!
species‐specific!
for!example,!salmon!swim!up!river!to!spawn,!a!behavior!not!seen!in!other!species!
!
Biological(Bases(
the!septum!is!the!primary!pleasure!center!in!the!brain!
mild!stimulation!induces!pleasure!and!sexual!arousal!
it!also!acts!to!inhibit!aggression!
if!the!septal!area!is!damaged,!aggressive!behavior!occurs‐‐this!is!called!septal!rage!
!
drive.reduction.theory‐‐biological!needs!motive!our!behavior!
homeostasis‐‐a!state!of!balance!in!the!body;!being!out!of!homeostasis!creates!a!need!necessitating!
a!drive!
!
the!arousal!theory!states!that!there!is!an!optimal!level!of!arousal!for!a!given!task!
low!levels!of!arousal!are!needed!for!hard!tasks!that!require!concentration!and!focus!
moderate!levels!are!needed!for!moderately!difficult!tasks!
high!levels!are!needed!for!tasks!that!require!endurance!and!persistence!
!
the!opponentprocess!theory!of!motivation!states!that!for!each!motivating!drive!there!is!also!a!
disincentive!to!that!drive!
once!an!individual!is!satiated!for!a!particular!drive,!there!is!an!opposite!or!opponent!drive!to!
avoid!fulfilling!that!drive!(e.g.!once!you’ve!eaten!you!are!no!longer!hungry!and!stop!searching!
for!food)!
in!addictive!behaviors,!once!the!addictive!behavior!is!performed!and!lessens!in!intensity,!there!
is!a!rebound!effect!where!the!opponent!drive!remains!active!
more!and!more!of!the!addictive!substance!is!then!needed!to!achieve!the!desired!result,!
thereby!leading!to!addiction!
!
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the!main!drives!are!hunger,!thirst!and!sex‐‐these!are!all!connected!to!the!functioning!of!the!
hypothalamus!
the!hypothalamus!regulates!temperature,!metabolism!and!water!balance!
it!also!has!a!role!in!arousal,!aggressive!behavior!and!sexual!behavior!
!
Biological(Bases:(Hunger(
the!lateral!hypothalamus!(LH)!involves!the!hunger!center!
the!LH!tells!the!organism!when!to!begin!eating!and!drinking!
damage!to!the!LH!can!cause!aphagia‐‐a!refusal!to!eat!or!drink!voluntarily!to!the!point!the!
organism!must!be!force‐fed!through!tubes!
the!LH!also!plays!a!role!in!rage!and!fighting!
!
the!ventromedial!hypothalamus!(VMH)!involves!the!satiety!center!
the!VMH!tells!the!individual!when!he!or!she!has!eaten!enough!
brain!lesions!in!the!VMH!typically!lead!to!overeating!and!obesity‐‐this!is!called!hyperphagia.
(
the!glucostatic!hypothesis!asserts!that!hunger!is!tied!to!glucose!levels!in!the!body!
glucose!levels!do!appear!to!influence!the!immediate!perception!of!hunger!and!feelings!of!
satiation!
the!lipostatic!hypothesis!asserts!that!hunger!is!tied!to!fat!levels!in!the!body!
fat!levels!do!appear!to!be!involved!with!general!eating!patterns!
there!is!general!agreement!that!both!glucose!and!fat!levels!influence!hunger!
!
set5point.theory‐‐the!theory!that!the!hypothalamus!wants!to!maintain!a!certain!body!weight!
will!trigger!eating!and!lower!metabolic!rate!when!we!drop!below!that!weight!
will!trigger!cessation!of!eating!and!elevate!metabolic!rate!when!we!hit!the!set!point!
!
Eating(Disorders(
The!three!most!common!eating!disorders!are:!
bulimia55eating!large!amounts!of!food!(binging)!and!then!getting!rid!of!the!food!through!
excessive!exercise,!use!of!laxatives!or!vomiting!(purging)!
anorexia.nervosa‐‐individuals!who!starve!themselves!to!the!point!their!body!weight!drops!
below!85%!of!normal;!mostly!women!
obesity‐‐individuals!who!are!severely!overweight;!typically!these!individuals!have!unhealthy!
eating!habits!
!
Thirst(
osmoregulation‐‐a!condition!in!which!osmoreceptors!in!the!hypothalamus!determine!the!water!
level!in!the!body!
if!the!water!levels!are!too!low,!osmoreceptors!release!an!antidiuretic!hormone!to!compensate!
for!the!level!
volumetric!sensors!in!the!hypothalamus!measure!water!levels!at!the!extracellular!level!
if!the!water!levels!are!too!low,!the!hormone!angiotensin!is!released!that!causes!the!individual!
to!feel!thirsty,!thereby!leading!to!drinking!behavior!
!
Pain(
the.gate.theory.of.pain.states!that!a!special!gating!mechanism!found!in!the!spinal!cord!can!turn!
pain!signals!on!and!off!
this!affects!whether!the!individual!feels!pain!or!not!because!if!blocks!the!perception!of!pain!from!
the!brain!
!
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