46-333 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Cyberbullying

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3330
Professor
Childhood
Socioemotional Development
Chapter 6
Personality
7- to 8-year-old children entering the Concrete
Operational Stage:
Become less egocentric
Understand others have different perspectives from their own
No longer believe they are the center of the universe
Become more self-aware
Self-reflect and compare themselves to others
Changes in self-awareness
3-year-old self descriptions focus on external facts.
Self descriptions of 4th grade child:
Internal and psychological
Anchored in feelings, abilities, and inner traits
Self-esteem develops
Declines during early elementary school
A Deeper Look at Self-Esteem:
Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority Stage
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(Erikson) Children have ability to work toward a goal; may
feel inferior if they do not measure up
Self-Esteem: based on the value the child places on a
particular dimension or dimensions of self
Susan Harters 5 dimensions of Self-Esteem:
Peer Likability - People skills or Popularity
Behavioral Conduct - Politeness or Good Manners
Scholastic Competence - Intellectual abilities or academic
talents
Physical Appearance Looks, Attractiveness
Athletic Skills - Physical abilities or Good at Sports
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965)
Emotional Regulation
Maturing frontal lobe contributes to development of self-
regulation abilities
Important for social and emotional success
Problematic temperamental tendencies
Externalizing tendencies
Internalizing tendencies
Self-Esteem Distortions
Low self-esteem internalizing problems
Overly self-critical
Inflate failures
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See failure when it doesn’t exist
Learned-Helplessness
Feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events and
gives up trying
Common in those with internalizing problems
Cultural Differences and Self-Esteem
Collectivist cultures emphasize harmony, modesty, and
the importance of the group.
High self-esteem is not a priority!
Western culture emphasizes self-esteem!
Aggression
Any hostile or destructive act
Peaks at about age 2 ½
Declines with onset of emotional regulation (maturing
frontal lobes)
Types:
I
In
ns
st
tr
ru
um
me
en
nt
ta
al
l initiated to achieve a goal
R
Re
ea
ac
ct
ti
iv
ve
e response to being hurt or frustrated
R
Re
el
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- designed to hurt or damage social
relationships
Relationships and Play
Rough-and-tumble play
Fantasy Play (pretend play)
Emerges at end of sensorimotor stage
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Document Summary

Understand others have different perspectives from their own. No longer believe they are the center of the universe. Self descriptions of 4th grade child: internal and psychological, anchored in feelings, abilities, and inner traits, self-esteem develops, declines during early elementary school. Erikson"s industry vs. inferiority stage (erikson) children have ability to work toward a goal; may feel inferior if they do not measure up. Self-esteem: based on the value the child places on a particular dimension or dimensions of self. Peer likability - people skills or popularity talents. Athletic skills - physical abilities or good at sports. Maturing frontal lobe contributes to development of self- Feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events and gives up trying. Declines with onset of emotional regulation (maturing frontal lobes) Iinnssttrruummeennttaall initiated to achieve a goal. Rreeaaccttiivvee response to being hurt or frustrated. Rreellaattiioonnaall - designed to hurt or damage social relationships. Initially parent scaffolds or assists in play scenarios.

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