Understand others have different perspectives from their own. No longer believe they are the center of the universe. Self descriptions of 4th grade child: internal and psychological, anchored in feelings, abilities, and inner traits, self-esteem develops, declines during early elementary school. Erikson"s industry vs. inferiority stage (erikson) children have ability to work toward a goal; may feel inferior if they do not measure up. Self-esteem: based on the value the child places on a particular dimension or dimensions of self. Peer likability - people skills or popularity talents. Athletic skills - physical abilities or good at sports. Maturing frontal lobe contributes to development of self- Feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events and gives up trying. Declines with onset of emotional regulation (maturing frontal lobes) Iinnssttrruummeennttaall initiated to achieve a goal. Rreeaaccttiivvee response to being hurt or frustrated. Rreellaattiioonnaall - designed to hurt or damage social relationships. Initially parent scaffolds or assists in play scenarios.