Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
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46 (100)
Brown (10)
Chapter

46-333 Chapter Notes -Behavioral Neuroscience, Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Fluoxetine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3330
Professor
Brown

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Biopsychology+
!
The+Nervous+System+
the!nervous!system!is!divided!into!two!parts!
the!central!nervous!system!refers!to!the!brain!and!the!spinal!cord!
the!peripheral!nervous!system!refers!to!the!neural!pathways!going!to!and!coming!from!the!
central!nervous!system;!these!are!all!the!other!nerves!in!the!body!not!encased!in!bone!
sensory!(or!afferent)!neurons!relay!information!from!the!sense!receptors!to!the!spinal!cord!and!
brain!
motor!(or!efferent)!neurons!relay!information!from!the!central!nervous!system!to!the!muscles!
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reflex!arcs!allow!behavior!responses!without!processing!by!the!higher‐order!levels!of!the!brain‐‐
these!are!essential!for!survival!and!allow!for!rapid!motor!responses!
for!example,!stimulating!the!correct!area!of!the!kneecap!will!cause!the!leg!the!jerk!or!removing!
the!hand!when!it!touches!something!very!hot!
!
the!peripheral!nervous!system!(PNS)!can!be!divided!into!two!systems!
the!somatic!nervous!system!is!in!charge!of!voluntary!skeletal!muscles!that!allow!us!to!move!
the!autonomic!nervous!system!is!in!charge!of!predominantly!involuntary!smooth!and!cardiac!
muscle!activity!
this!includes!the!heart,!lungs,!internal!organs!and!glands!
the!autonomic!nervous!system!can!be!divided!into!two!systems!
the!parasympathetic3nervous3system!is!in!charge!of!the!body!at!rest!(slowing!down!biological!
processes)!and!in!digestion!of!food!
the!sympathetic3nervous3system!kicks!in!during!times!of!stress,!fear!or!rage‐‐it!controls!our!
“fight!or!flight”!behaviors!and!accelerates!functions!like!heart!rate!and!blood!pressure!
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The+Neuron+Diagram+p.+55+
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The+Neuron+
the!dendrites!receive!incoming!information!
the!cell!body!(sometimes!called!the!soma)!which!contains!the!nucleus,!and!is!the!living!part!of!the!
neuron!
the!axon!is!the!long!fiber!over!which!outgoing!messages!travel!
the!terminal!buttons!(or!end!buttons,!terminal!branches!of!the!axon!or!synaptic!knobs)!are!the!
transmitters,!sending!information!on!to!the!next!neuron!

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the!space!between!neurons!is!the!synaptic!gap!!
the!synapse!is!made!up!of!the!axon!terminal!buttons!of!one!neuron,!the!synaptic!gap,!and!the!
dendrites!of!the!next!neuron!
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Neurotransmitters+
there!are!several!neurotransmitters!or!chemicals!released!by!the!synaptic!vesicles!that!travel!
across!the!synaptic!gap!and!affect!adjacent!neurons!
these!can!be!
inhibitory!which!inhibits!the!next!cell!from!firing!
excitatory!which!excites!the!next!cell!into!firing!
major!neurotransmitters:!!
dopamine!which!inhibitory!neurotransmitter!involved!in!motor!movement!and!alertness!
lack!of!dopamine!is!linked!to!Parkinson's!Disease!
excessive!dopamine!levels!are!linked!to!schizophrenia!
serotonin!which!is!a!neurotransmitter!involved!in!mood!control!
obsessive‐compulsive!disorder!(OCD)!is!linked!to!excessive!serotonin!
depression!is!linked!to!clinical!depression!
acetylcholine!is!involved!in!motor!movement!
lack!of!acetylcholine!is!linked!to!Alzheimer's!Disease!
norepinephrine!which!is!involved!in!arousal,!wakefulness,!leaning,!memory,!depression!and!mania!
endorphins!are!associated!with!pain!control!and!involved!in!addictions!
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Reuptake+Mechanisms+
•!!!!antidepressants!work!by!increasing!the!availability!of!norepinephrine!or!serotonin!
–! these!neurotransmitters!elevate!mood!and!arousal!
•! Prozac!(Zoloft!and!Paxil)!partially!blocks!the!reabsorption!and!removal!of!serotonin!from!
synapses!
!!! because!they!slow!the!vacuuming!serotonin!in!the!synapse!they!are!called!selective3serotonin3
reuptake3inhibitors3(SSRIs)!
•!! other!dual‐action!antidepressants!work!by!blocking!the!reabsorption!or!breakdown!of!both!
norepinephrine!and!serotonin!
!!! dual!action!drugs!have!more!potential!side!effects—dry!mouth,!weight!gain,!hypertension,!
dizziness!
–! they!are!administered!via!a!patch,!bypassing!the!intestines!and!liver,!reducing!the!side!effects!
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Old+Methods+of+Brain+Study+
there!are!several!methods!of!brain!study!which!have!been!conducted!in!the!past,!with!new,!
computerized!studies!rendering!more!accurate!information!
old!methods!of!brain!study!include:!!
direct!stimulation!(or!microelectrode!method):!part!of!the!brain!is!stimulated!to!see!its!effect!!
evoked!potential:!part!of!the!brain!is!monitored!to!see!if!external!stimuli!change!its!functioning!!
lesioning!(or!ablation):!severing!or!cutting!parts!of!the!brain!!
EEG:!measures!brain!wave!activity‐‐frequently!used!in!dream!research!!
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New+Methods+of+Brain+Study+
new!methods!of!brain!study!include:!!
MRI!:!magnetic!fields!from!radio!waves!to!look!at!density!and!brain!material!
PET!:!positron!emission!tomography,!uses!radioactive!material,!good!for!metabolic!activity!of!
the!brain;!measures!how!much!the!brain!is!using!of!certain!chemicals!(e.g.!glucose)!
CT@SCAN!:!uses!X‐rays!to!look!at!soft!tissue!!
fMRI:3functional!MRIs!combine!elements!of!PET!and!MRI!scans;!looks!for!blood!flow!and!can!
tie!brain!structures!to!cognitive!brain!activities3
SPECT!:!single!proton!emission!computerized!axial!tomography,!traces!blood!flow!in!the!brain!!
SQUID!:!super!conducting!quantum!interference!device,!senses!tiny!changes!in!the!brain's!
magnetic!fields!and!represents!them!in!3‐D,!deals!with!electrical!impulses!from!neural!firing!
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The+Brain+Diagram+p.+75+
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The+Three+Brains+
the!brain!can!be!divided!into!three!brains‐‐forebrain,!midbrain!and!hindbrain!
the!forebrain!includes:!!
hypothalamus:!controls!hunger,!thirst,!sexual!!behavior,!body!temperature!and!motivation!!
thalamus:!the!relay!center!for!sense!receptors!!
cerebral!cortex:!higher‐order!thinking!and!language!!
corpus!callosum:!band!of!fibers!that!connects!the!!two!hemispheres!!
the!midbrain:!!
integrates!some!sensory!information!and!muscle!movements!
includes3the3reticular!formation!(not!on!diagram):!the!alert!system!of!the!brain!!
the!hindbrain!includes:!!
cerebellum:!controls!balance,!fine!movement!and!muscle!tone!!
pons:!the!sleep‐wake!cycle!!
medulla:!controls!breathing,!heart!rate!and!blood!!pressure!!
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the3brainstem@@the!midbrain!and!hindbrain!combined!that!are!typically!considered!the!most!
primitive!part!of!the!brain!
phylogeny‐‐the!study!of!the!evolutionary!development!of!humans!
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The+Limbic+System+
also!included!is!the!limbic!system!which!includes:!!
the!amygdala!is!responsible!for!some!aspects!of!memory!as!well!as!aggressive!and!defensive!
behaviors!
the!hippocampus!is!also!responsible!for!memory!and!preservation!
the!septum!regulates!aggression,!pleasure!and!sexual!arousal!
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