46-339 Chapter Notes -Psychosurgery

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3390
Professor
Unit%2%Notes:%Therapies%
!
Terms%
symptoms:!behavioral!signs!indicating!a!disorder!is!present!!
diagnosis:!a!classification!of!a!disorder;!typically!the!DSM‐IV!is!used!to!determine!the!diagnosis!!
etiology:!suggestion!of!a!cause!of!a!disorder!!
prognosis:!an!estimate!as!to!the!length!of!time!or!degree!of!effectiveness!in!treating!a!disorder!!
treatment:!a!course!of!action!aimed!at!reducing,!controlling!or!eliminating!the!symptoms!of!a!
disorder!!
!
Models%of%Treatment%
There!are!six!recognized!models!of!treatment:!
psychodynamic:!believes!the!key!to!successful!treatment!involves!having!the!patient!gain!
insight!into!their!unconscious!motives,!emotions!or!conflicts!!
behavioral:!advocates!relearning!as!the!preferred!method!of!correcting!past!maladaptive!
behaviors!!
humanistic:!believes!in!the!inherent!goodness!of!people!and!strives!to!make!them!more!fully‐
functioning!!
cognitive:!attempts!to!restructure!the!patient's!incorrect!thought!processes!and!unrealistic!
expectations!into!more!realistic!thoughts!!
biomedical:!advocates!the!treatment!of!psychological!disorders!through!chemical!or!surgical!
processes!!
group%therapy:!allows!other!afflicted!with!similar!disorders!to!share!real‐world!solutions!and!
coping!mechanisms!
!
Psychodynamic%Therapy%
Sigmund!Freud!pioneered!this!form!of!treatment!with!his!"talking!cure,"!a!derivative!of!Joseph!
Breuer's!"chimney!sweeping"!!
Both!of!these!involve!the!cathartic4method,!or!a!treatment!that!results!in!a!cleansing!or!purging!of!
emotions!
The!ultimate!goal!is!to!provide!the!patient!insight!into!past,!unresolved!conflicts!from!emotionally!
abrasive!experiences!during!childhood!
The!patients!may!exhibit!resistance,!or!an!unwillingness!to!discuss!their!thoughts!and!behaviors!
freely!
!
Freud's!psychoanalysis!involves!three!parts:!
free4association:!allowing!the!patient!to!say!whatever!is!important!to!them!at!the!time!with!
minimal!prompting!from!the!therapist!!
hypnosis:!a!mild!state!of!relaxation!and!increased!suggestibility!that!Freud!perfected!through!
his!studies!with!Jean!Martin!Charcot!in!Paris!!
dream4analysis:!an!investigation!into!the!dream!work,!the!process!involved!in!changing!the!
latent4content%of!a!dream!produced!by!the!id!into!the!manifest4content!designed!to!preserve!
ego!integrity!!
!
While!undergoing!therapy,!the!patient!can!experience!both!positive!and!negative!transference!
positive4transference!involves!projecting!the!patient's!warm!feelings!for!their!parents!onto!the!
therapist!
negative4transference!involves!projecting!hostile!feelings!towards!authority!figures!onto!the!
therapist!
The!therapist!can!also!suffer!from!countertransference!where!they!project!feelings!of!affection!or!
hostility!toward!significant!people!in!their!lives!onto!the!patient.!
!
NeoFreudians!or!post‐Freudians!have!emphasized!different!aspects!of!Freud's!theories!
They!don't!believe!the!libido!is!the!primary!motive!in!our!unconscious!actions!
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