46-339 Chapter Notes -Phlegm, Libido

32 views7 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3390
Professor
Unit%8%Notes:%Personality%
!
Definition%
personality%is!an!individual's!unique!thoughts,!feelings!and!behavior!that!persist!over!time!and!
different!situations!
!
Six%Psychological%Perspectives%
There!are!six!main!schools!of!thought!regarding!personality:!
psychodynamic:!focuses!on!unconscious!motives!and!structures!to!explain!personality!!
humanistic:!focuses!on!the!fundamental!goodness!of!people!and!their!attempts!to!strive!for!
higher!levels!of!functioning!!
constitution!(or!type):!proposes!a!relationship!between!body!type!and!personality!
characteristics!!
trait:!examines!stable!characteristics!of!the!person!that!help!explain!behavior!!
social2cognitive:!focuses!on!environmental!contingencies!and!accompanying!mental!processes!
to!explain!personality!!
behavioral:!focuses!on!the!fundamentals!of!learning!to!explain!behavior!
!
Psychodynamic:%Sigmund%Freud%
the!most!well‐known!psychodynamic!theorist!if!Sigmund!Freud.!!
Freud!focused!on!the!power!of!inner!forces!as!motivators!to!shape!personality!
!
Psychoanalysis7includes!three!main!techniques:!
free7association:!allowing!the!patient!to!say!whatever!comes!to!mind!!
dream7analysis:!attempts!to!examine!the!latent!(hidden)!content!of!a!dream!through!
examining!its!manifest!(remembered)!dream!elements!!
hypnosis:!a!state!of!suggestibility!induced!by!the!therapist!
!
Freud's!psychodynamic!theory!is!based!on!a!few!key!concepts:!
1. underlying!symptoms!can!be!relieved!through!the!expression!of!the!strangulated!affect,!
or!bring!these!unconscious!motives!to!the!surface‐‐the!process!of!purging!these!emotions!
is!called!catharsis!
2. the!symptoms!someone!displays!have!an!emotional!logic!and!the!key!to!psychoanalysis!is!
to!unlock!the!mysteries!of!these!symptoms!!
3. a!lot!of!abnormal!behaviors!are!a!result!of!emotionally!abrasive!experiences!in!our!
childhood;!they!unconsciously!grow!into!abnormal!behaviors!as!the!person!gets!older!
Freud’s!theories!are!based!on!psychic!determinism‐‐!the!assumption!that!our!early!life!
determines!our!behavior!and!unconscious!reactions.!!
!
Freud!believed!we!all!had!certain!drives!and!instincts!which!guide!our!behavior:!
eros:!the!life!instinct!which!seeks!to!preserve!the!species;!!
libido:!our!sexual!energy!!
thanatos:!our!desire!to!return!to!the!womb;!shown!in!aggressive!and!destructive!behavior!
Freud!believed!that!everyone!progressed!through!five!stages!of!psychosexual!development!!
these!stages!are:!
oral!stage!(0‐1!years):!achieves!libidinal!satisfaction!from!oral!activities!such!as!eating!and!
sucking!!
anal!stage!(1‐3!years):!autonomy!is!developed!through!bladder!and!bowel!control!!
phallic!stage!(3‐6!years):!the!child!comes!to!develop!a!sexual!attachment!to!the!opposite!sexed!
parent!and!to!see!the!same!sexed!parent!as!a!rival!for!those!affections!!
Oedipus!Complex:!boys!want!to!possess!the!mother!and!see!their!father!as!a!sexual!rival!!
Electra!Complex:!girls!want!to!possess!the!father!and!see!their!mother!as!a!sexual!rival!!
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latency!period!(6‐puberty):!a!period!of!sexual!rest!for!both!sexes!where!sex‐role!identities!
develop!!
genital!stage!(puberty!on):!a!reawakening!of!sexual!urges!and!a!desire!for!heterosexual!
relationships!!
!
Freud!believed!that!the!mind!or!our!personality!was!made!up!of!three!constructs:!
the!id:!the!child!within!us!that!seeks!expression!of!wishes!and!emotions!(called!the!pleasure!
principle)!!
the!ego:!uses!the!reality!principle!to!satisfy!the!id!and!superego!safely!and!effectively!in!the!
real!world!
the!superego:!society's!values!and!morals;!the!parent!within!us!which!is!guided!by!the!
idealistic!principle!
!
Individuals!constantly!strive!to!present!their!best!self!and!reduce!anxiety!
Freud!called!this!preserving!ego!integrity7
To!do!this,!individuals!employ!a!variety!of!defense!mechanisms:!
repression:!involuntary!memory!loss!about!something!anxiety‐producing!!
suppression:!voluntarily!not!thinking!about!something!anxiety‐producing!!
denial:!not!facing!up!to!the!reality!of!a!situation!!
rationalization:!making!up!excuses!for!our!actions!!
displacement:!rechanneling!aggression!in!a!negative!way;!taking!our!frustrations!out!on!a!
substitute!person!or!object!!
sublimation!(also!called!compensation):!rechanneling!aggression!in!a!neutral!or!positive!way!!
projection:!putting!onto!others!our!own!tendencies,!motives!or!traits!!
reaction!formation:!behaving!outwardly!that!opposite!of!how!we!inwardly!feel!!
fantasy:!escaping!reality!through!daydreaming!or!using!the!imagination!!
procrastination:!putting!off!something!anxiety‐producing!until!a!later!time!!
fixation:!becoming!stuck!at!a!specific!stage!of!psychosexual!development!because!it!is!safer!for!
ego!integrity!!
regression:!returning!to!an!earlier!stage!of!psychosexual!development!
!
neo2Freudians!refined!and!developed!Freud's!theories!
they!did!not!agree!that!our!libido!guided!the!majority!of!our!actions!but!found!other!sources!for!
our!motives!
!
Psychodynamic:%Carl%Jung%
Carl!Jung!was!Freud's!handpicked!successor!!
Jung!believed!that!our!personality!or!mind!was!made!up!of!three!constructs.!!
conscious!ego:!our!consciousness!awareness!of!ourselves!and!how!we!present!our!self!to!the!
outside!world!
personal!unconscious:!motives!and!behaviors!that!are!unique!to!the!individual!hidden!away!in!
the!unconscious!!
collective!unconscious:!racial!memory;!our!understanding!of!mankind's!past;!our!intuitive!
tendencies!toward!universal,!reoccurring!symbols!called!archetypes!
!
some!of!the!more!notable!archetypal!characters!found!in!literature!are:!
hero:!saves!the!day;!defeats!evil;!protects!the!weak!!
mother:!surrounds,!encompasses!and!protects!the!individual;!can!be!both!a!person!or!an!
institution!!
shadow:!the!dark!side!of!our!nature;!our!hidden,!bad!tendencies!we!do!not!like!to!acknowledge!!
trickster/magician:!plays!sly!pranks!and!malicious!tricks;!usually!represented!as!half!man,!half!
animal!!
child2god:!an!individual!who!has!powers!or!knowledge!beyond!their!years!!
anima:!the!projection!of!femininity!from!a!man's!collective!unconscious;!seeing!in!others!our!
own!opposite!sexed!characteristics!!
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