46-355 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Professional Code Of Quebec, Institutional Animal Care And Use Committee, Nuremberg Code

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3550
Professor
Definitions
Chapter 4
Active
deception
The intentional presentation of misinformation about a study to its participants. The most
common form of active deception is misleading participants about the specific purpose of
the study. Also known as commission.
Anonymity
The practice of ensuring that an individual’s name is not directly associated with the
information or measurements obtained from that individual. Keeping records anonymous is
a way to preserve the confidentiality of research participants.
APA Ethics
Code
A common set of principles and standards on which psychologists build their professional
and scientific work. This Code is intended to provide specific standards that cover most
situations encountered by psychologists. Its primary goal is the welfare and protection of
the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work.
Clinical
equipoise
The ethical issue requiring clinicians to provide the best possible treatment for their
patients, thus limiting research to studies that compare equally preferred treatments.
Commission
See active deception.
Confidentiality
The practice of keeping strictly secret and private the information or measurements
obtained from an individual during a research study. APA ethical guidelines require
researchers to ensure the confidentiality of their research participants.
Consent form
A written statement by the researcher containing all of the elements of informed consent
and a line for the participant’s signature. The consent form is provided prior to the study so
that potential participants have all the information they need in order to make an informed
decision regarding participation.
Debriefing
A postexperimental explanation of the purpose of the study. A debriefing is given after a
participant completes a study, especially if deception was used.
Deception
The purposeful withholding of information or misleading of participants about a study. There
are two forms of deception: passive and active.
Ethics
The study of proper action.
Fraud
The explicit efforts of a researcher to deceive and misrepresent data. Fraud is unethical.
Informed
consent
The ethical principle requiring the investigator to provide all available information about a
study so that a participant can make a rational, informed decision regarding whether or not
to participate in the study.
Institutional
Animal Care
and Use
Committee
(IACUC)
A committee that examines all proposed research with respect to its treatment of
nonhuman subjects. IACUC approval must be obtained prior to conducting any research
with nonhuman subjects.
Institutional
Review Board
(IRB)
A committee that examines all proposed research with respect to its treatment of human
participants. IRB approval must be obtained prior to conducting any research with human
participants.
Nuremberg
Code
A set of 10 guidelines for the ethical treatment of human participants in research. The
Nuremberg Code, developed from the Nuremberg Trials in 1947, laid the groundwork for
the current ethical standards for medical and psychological research.
Omission
See passive deception.
Passive
The intentional withholding or omitting of information whereby participants are not told
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Document Summary

The intentional presentation of misinformation about a study to its participants. The most common form of active deception is misleading participants about the specific purpose of the study. The practice of ensuring that an individual"s name is not directly associated with the information or measurements obtained from that individual. Keeping records anonymous is a way to preserve the confidentiality of research participants. A common set of principles and standards on which psychologists build their professional and scientific work. This code is intended to provide specific standards that cover most situations encountered by psychologists. Its primary goal is the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work. The ethical issue requiring clinicians to provide the best possible treatment for their patients, thus limiting research to studies that compare equally preferred treatments. Confidentiality the practice of keeping strictly secret and private the information or measurements obtained from an individual during a research study.

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