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CHEM-1111 (5)
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Chapter 1

Intro chem chapter 1.docx

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University of Winnipeg

The Study of Change The scientific method--Define problem-->experiments-->make observations & record data-->develop a hypothesis hypotheses (a tentative explanation for a set of observations)-->extensive data is summarized as a law ( a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions). --A hypotheses that survives many experimental tests of their validity may turn into a theory (a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and/or those laws that are based on them). Chemistry in Action: Primordial Helium and the Big Bang Theory -1940s, George Gamow developed the Big Bang Theory. Since then science has been able to provide certain proof in favour of his theory. Measurements have been made that indicate that the universe is expanding, scientists have detected background radiation, and primordial helium has been found in the universe. Hydrogen and helium should have formed first (they are the two most simple elements) and diffused before many galaxies were formed. When ultraviolet light is analyzed from quasars, it is found that helium absorbs the light; if hydrogen ionizes is cannot absorb light, but helium can lose an electron and still have another while still absorbing light. Classifications of Matter-Substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds. Also atoms and molecules in chapter 2. If this section is confusing, there is a diagram that breaks it down in the textbook. Substance: matter that has definite (constant) composition and distinct properties (ex. Water, sucrose, gold, and oxygen). A substance can be an element or a compound. Element: a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. Compound: a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. Compounds can only be separated by chemical means. Mixture: a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. The components of a mixture can be separated without losing their composition or properties. Homogeneous mixture: composition is the same throughout (ex. sugar dissolved
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