Textbook Notes (368,848)
Canada (162,204)
Psychology (34)
PSYC-1000 (13)
Mike Lee (8)
Chapter 2

Intro Psych Chapter two.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Mike Lee

Chapter Two: Methods Psychological Research What Makes Psychology Scientific?  Uses scientific method- can be used to study an aspect of the natural world. Humans are a part of this world therefore psychology is a science.  Adheres to several key values/standards:  Accuracy (precision)  Objectivity (avoid confirmation bias)  Skepticism (replication)  Open-mindedness  Openness  Reliance on evidence  Willingness to make risky predictions  Principle of falsifiability (we should be happy when our theories are falsified). --> Comes from Carl Popper. Goals of Psychology  Observe/describe what  Explain/understand why  Dispositional; situational variables  Predict- forecasting behaviour accurately  Control/ influence- prevention/intervention Free Will? Basic Assumption: events are governed by some lawful order- "Determinism".  Much of psych assumes determinism since to be scientific (finding cause and effect) means identifying determining causes. -Determinism conflicts with our subjective experience of choice. Soft Determinism  A compromise position first proposed by William James.  Behaviour is seen as determined to an extent, but in the absence of compulsion, people have a degree of choice and freedom. Descriptive Methods  Non-experimental methods describes behaviour but do not let us identify the causes or reason for the behaviour. Non-experimental does not mean not scientific; common misuse of the term "experiment". -Experiments not always appropriate or ethical.  Case Study method- study of particularly unique or extreme cases (Genie) used when large number of subjects are not available. -Often used in clinical research (ex. Freud's case study approach). -Drawbacks include a sample size (limit to generalizability) and susceptibility to researcher bias.  Naturalistic Observation- researcher observe naturally occurring behaviour (includes ecological validity and observer bias).  Laboratory Observation- Reactivity (subjects might change behaviour because they're being observed). Hand washing study--> Women in night clubs less likely to wash hands when they thought they were alone in the room. Correlational Methods  Endeavours to find relationships/associations between two behaviours, situations, events, etc.  Takes advantage of the fact that some events appear to be related to each other.  Such relationships are called correlations (co-related).  Given a correlation between two variables, it's possible to predict one variable from info about one or more other variables.  Stronger the corre
More Less

Related notes for PSYC-1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.