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Chapter 4

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Mike Lee

Mind, Brain and Behavior  Neuroscientists want to unify the science of the mind with the science of the brain.  Actions of the brain underlie all behavior.  What we call mind is a range of functions carried out by the brain Association Areas  More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex Human Nervous System  CNS: central executive – where decisions are made  No contact with outside world  PNS: provides CNS with info from sensory receptors and relays commands from the brain to the body’s organs and muscles  Where muscles are moved, internal organs are regulated, and sensory input is moved toward the brain  PNS: composed of 2 sets of nerve fibers -Somatic nervous system: regulates actions of the body’s skeletal muscles  delivers information about the environment to the brain -Autonomic nervous system: controls the more automatic functions – autopilot (dual system]  Deals with survival matters of 2 kinds: o Threats to the organism o Bodily maintenance Brainstem  "Inner Core" of Brain; Regulates Life-Support  Rests Atop and Connects to Spinal Cord  Pons – “bridge”  RF/RAS – arousal center  Cerebellum – „tiny brain  Medulla – vital functions/crossing over Limbic System  Subcortical structures – deep in the interior  Above Brainstem, Surrounded by Cortex  Critical to Motivation, Emotion, Memory  Contains Thalamus ("Sensory Relay Station")  Contains Amygdala (Emotion - aggression and fear)  Contains Hippocampus (Memory Formation)  Contains Hypothalamus (Regulates Temperature, Hunger, Activity of ANS, hormone release via pituitary Cerebrum  Outer surface is cerebral cortex- seat of higher cognitive function  Divided into 2 hemispheres, connected by corpus callosum  Grooves in cerebrum:  Central sulcus and lateral fissure o help define 4 major areas or lobes in brain in each hemisphere Motor cortex- Topographic organization Somatosensory cortex- Note the relationship between sensitivity to touch and the size of the representation in the cortex Split-Brain Syndrome  Commissurotomy  Patient functionally has two separate brains, which results in deficits that are subtle and somewhat strange  commissurotomized patients have two independent streams of consciousness  Flash picture to right eye- projects to left hemisphere  patient can describe it  Flash picture to left eye- projects to right hemisphere  patient cannot tell you what object is  Alien hand syndrome  Split brain patients do not recognize their unseen left hand when touched by right hand.  ‘intramanual conflict’: e.g. one hand buttons up shirt, other unbuttons Lateralization of Function  Language is the most lateralized of all abilities  Language is primarily a left hemisphere activity for most individuals Left/Right Hemisphere Specialization LEFT  Analytic thought- Step by step process  Logic- Conclusions based upon a logical or consecutive order  Lan
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