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Chapter 12

Intro Psych Chapter 12 Human motivation.docx

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University of Winnipeg
Mike Lee

 Broad term in psychology covering large range of human behaviour.  Two general classes: 1. Biological motives (think instinctual) 2. Psychogenic motives (psychological generated)  But physiology and psychology are not easily separated. o `Ex. Hunger. Prior to the introduction of American TV programs in 1996, Fijians preferred a "well-muscled, robust body." o Following exposure to such programming, eating disorders quickly reached American levels.  All organisms move away or toward some stimuli and activities.  Theories of motivation explain the general and unique patterns of movement.  Motivation explanations are used to understand individual differences or variations in peoples' behaviour or performance in a constant situation when… (get from slides)  Refers to internal or external factors that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour.  Understanding motivation often helps us to answer "why" questions o Motives o Driving force behind behaviour/impetus  Number of concepts to guide research have been developed. o Motivating-mechanisms Instincts and Genetic Influence  Instinct theory- motivation results from biological genetic programming  Core motivation is to survive  Our actions are instincts  William McDougal (1908)- viewed instincts as behaviour patterns that are unlearned, uniform in expression, and universal.  William James- instincts= specialized neural circuits (modules) which reflect evolutionary history of a species. They constitute human nature.  Instinct blindness- unawareness of instinctual effects  Freud- unconscious motivation- basic instincts o Life and death (Eros and Thantos) o Life instincts are a biological urge that perpetuate the individual and the species o Death- destructive energy that is reflected in aggression, recklessness, and life threatening or self-defeating behaviours. Why War?  Correspondence at the instance of the League of Nations, on the possible prevention of war, published March 1933.  Freud believe nothing could be done as it was a part of human nature.  Bowlby- Attachment Theory o Modern instinct theory with a renewed interest in inborn behaviour tendencies o Helped spawn evolutionary psychology  Dawkins- The Selfish Gene (1976) o All behaviours motivated by need to pass on genes o He is a strict atheist; The God Delusion (2006) Problems with Instincts  Too man-little agreement  Naming, not explaining (ex. Greed)  Individual differences (ex. Jealousy)  Learned behaviours (ex. Reading)  Interested waned with the rise of behaviourism  By the 1930s, instinct no longer a useful concept; new concepts such as motiving- mechanisms were developed  An internal state of tension that motivates and organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension= drive= fuel of action Drive- Reduction Theory  Needs produce drives (ex. Thirst)  Internal state of tension  Tension-reduction  Homeostasis- state of physiological equilibrium  Deprivation creates disequilibrium  Drive and reinforcement Some Problems with Drive  Homeostasis seems irrelevant to some, but not many human motives  Motivation may exist without a drive arousal (ex. Many people go for desert when they are full).  Drives may not immediately produce motivation- behaviour is often controlled by a variety of incentives Incentive Theory  When an external goal has the capacity to motivate behaviour o Do not related directly to biological needs o Drive theory- internal- pushing o Incentive- external- pulling o Environment brings out behaviours; push pull difference Self-Determination Theory  Amotivation (???)- Motivation  Amotivation is controlled- autonomous or uncontrolled- intrinsic  Degree to which behaviours are rational- reflect choice  Deci (1991)- Three innate needs: 1. Competence- we're good at something 2. Autonomy- doing it by free will 3. Relatedness- that it is meaningful and we are related to it  Expectations and self-efficacy o Feelings of competence  Bandura o If you feel greater self-efficacy, more likely to created desired outcomes and develop an even stronger self-efficacy. Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation  IM flourishes when 3 innate needs are fulfilled rather than compromised  IM stimulates achievement o Rewards can turn play into work (kids love learning until they enter school)  Over justification effect- interest or performance becomes tied or contingent upon some kind of external event (scholarship/grades making school work)  Rewards tend to compromise sense of autonomy  Don't snuff out a person's sense of self-determination  Praise effort, not intelligence!  Individual difference in the motivation for personal success  David McClelland- nAch (need for achievement) o Reflects individual difference in the importance of doing well, succeeding, and avoiding failure. Thematic Apperception Test  Used to projectively measure to assess people's achievement concerns Motivation for Personal Achievement  Linked to parenting practices  Control, mastery, autonomy  Demonstrated importance of early "independence training". o Longitudinal study (1951)- link between Achievement Motivation (AM), nations economic growth and children' stories (Little Engine that Could) Parenting Styles  Parents who reward self-control and independence leads to a child with high nAch o They set high standards, child works at own level, they are allowed to make mistakes, and good performance is encouraged.  Parents of low achievers: o Set impossibly high standards, punish child when he/she
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