Broad term in psychology covering large range of human behaviour.
Two general classes:
1. Biological motives (think instinctual)
2. Psychogenic motives (psychological generated)
But physiology and psychology are not easily separated.
o `Ex. Hunger. Prior to the introduction of American TV programs in 1996, Fijians preferred a
"well-muscled, robust body."
o Following exposure to such programming, eating disorders quickly reached American levels.
All organisms move away or toward some stimuli and activities.
Theories of motivation explain the general and unique patterns of movement.
Motivation explanations are used to understand individual differences or variations in peoples'
behaviour or performance in a constant situation when… (get from slides)
Refers to internal or external factors that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour.
Understanding motivation often helps us to answer "why" questions
o Driving force behind behaviour/impetus
Number of concepts to guide research have been developed.
Instincts and Genetic Influence
Instinct theory- motivation results from biological genetic programming
Core motivation is to survive
Our actions are instincts
William McDougal (1908)- viewed instincts as behaviour patterns that are unlearned,
uniform in expression, and universal.
William James- instincts= specialized neural circuits (modules) which reflect evolutionary
history of a species. They constitute human nature.
Instinct blindness- unawareness of instinctual effects
Freud- unconscious motivation- basic instincts
o Life and death (Eros and Thantos)
o Life instincts are a biological urge that perpetuate the individual and the species
o Death- destructive energy that is reflected in aggression, recklessness, and life
threatening or self-defeating behaviours.
Correspondence at the instance of the League of Nations, on the possible prevention of
war, published March 1933.
Freud believe nothing could be done as it was a part of human nature.
Bowlby- Attachment Theory
Modern instinct theory with a renewed interest in inborn behaviour tendencies
o Helped spawn evolutionary psychology
Dawkins- The Selfish Gene (1976)
o All behaviours motivated by need to pass on genes o He is a strict atheist; The God Delusion (2006)
Problems with Instincts
Too man-little agreement
Naming, not explaining (ex. Greed)
Individual differences (ex. Jealousy)
Learned behaviours (ex. Reading)
Interested waned with the rise of behaviourism
By the 1930s, instinct no longer a useful concept; new concepts such as motiving-
mechanisms were developed
An internal state of tension that motivates and organism to engage in activities that
should reduce this tension= drive= fuel of action
Drive- Reduction Theory
Needs produce drives (ex. Thirst)
Internal state of tension
Homeostasis- state of physiological equilibrium
Deprivation creates disequilibrium
Drive and reinforcement
Some Problems with Drive
Homeostasis seems irrelevant to some, but not many human motives
Motivation may exist without a drive arousal (ex. Many people go for desert when they
Drives may not immediately produce motivation- behaviour is often controlled by a
variety of incentives
When an external goal has the capacity to motivate behaviour
o Do not related directly to biological needs
Drive theory- internal- pushing
o Incentive- external- pulling
o Environment brings out behaviours; push pull difference
Amotivation (???)- Motivation
Amotivation is controlled- autonomous or uncontrolled- intrinsic
Degree to which behaviours are rational- reflect choice
Deci (1991)- Three innate needs:
1. Competence- we're good at something
2. Autonomy- doing it by free will
3. Relatedness- that it is meaningful and we are related to it Expectations and self-efficacy
o Feelings of competence
o If you feel greater self-efficacy, more likely to created desired outcomes and develop
an even stronger self-efficacy.
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
IM flourishes when 3 innate needs are fulfilled rather than compromised
IM stimulates achievement
o Rewards can turn play into work (kids love learning until they enter school)
Over justification effect- interest or performance becomes tied or contingent upon some
kind of external event (scholarship/grades making school work)
Rewards tend to compromise sense of autonomy
Don't snuff out a person's sense of self-determination
Praise effort, not intelligence!
Individual difference in the motivation for personal success
David McClelland- nAch (need for achievement)
o Reflects individual difference in the importance of doing well, succeeding, and
Thematic Apperception Test
Used to projectively measure to assess people's achievement concerns
Motivation for Personal Achievement
Linked to parenting practices
Control, mastery, autonomy
Demonstrated importance of early "independence training".
o Longitudinal study (1951)- link between Achievement Motivation (AM), nations
economic growth and children' stories (Little Engine that Could)
Parents who reward self-control and independence leads to a child with high nAch
o They set high standards, child works at own level, they are allowed to make
mistakes, and good performance is encouraged.
Parents of low achievers:
o Set impossibly high standards, punish child when he/she