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Chapter 13

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC-1000
Professor
Mike Lee
Semester
Winter

Description
"The Child is the Father of the Man" From the Womb to the Tomb Prenatal (conception to birth) Infancy (birth to 18 months) Early Childhood (18 months-6 years) Young Adulthood (20-45 years) Middle Adulthood (45- 60 years) Later Adulthood (60 years- death)  There has been an extension of adolescence in both directions (tweens and emerging adults).  Emerging adulthood as a new phase of life Human Development  Pattern of change  Several interwoven processes: biological, cognitive, and socioemotional. Preconception  Sperm appear to be attracted by a chemical odour secreted by ova.  Sperm release enzymes to break down protective wall.  Implantation during germination stage at 12 days  Sometimes there are 2 ova fertilized which creates DZ twins (fraternal)  Division of one ovum into 2 after fertilization results in MZ (identical)  Semi-identical twins when 1 ovum and 2 sperm.  Multiple births are on the rise due to fertility drugs. From Zygote to Embryo  Fewer than 1/2 of all fertilized eggs (zygotes) survive beyond the 1st two weeks (the germal period).  Implantation and differentiation marks the end of the zygotic period. How identical cells differentiate is still a puzzle. Teratology  Teratogens are what cause deformities in babies; for example smoking may cause ectopic pregnancies (implantation in the tube). Human Development  Effects of teratogens not straightforward  Illustrates nature-nurture interactions before we are born  Early after Conception o 3-4 Weeks- primitive brain and spinal cord appear, the heart is beating, and the umbilical cord grows. o 5-8 Weeks- external body structures develop; still only an inch long.  Fetal Period o 9 Weeks- the fetus looks human o 12 Weeks- sex is evident o 16 Weeks- movement felt (7 inches long)  Prenatal Perception o After 6 months, fetus response to sound o Increasing awareness of external stimuli o Memory o Cat in the Hat (DeCasper and Spence, 1986); mothers were told to read the story 2 times daily for the last two weeks of pregnancy. Once born, the babies were shown to prefer the story. They were presented with a bottle that would play a recording of their mother reading the story if they sucked fast and a different story if they sucked slowly. Babies sucked faster to hear the familiar story.  Initiation of Childbirth o Increases in adrenal activity in the fetus results in production of oxytocin by the mother o Three stage of labour: 1. Dilation and effacement of the cervix 2. Delivery 3. Birth of the placenta  Laws of Development direction include cephalocaudal (head and down) and proximodistal (middle outward) Physical Growth and Maturation  Disproportionate early head growth o Brain attains 75% of adult weight by age 3 and 90% by age 5. o Head represents 50% of body length at 2 months after conception.  Neural plate folds in to form a tube where neurons are made; this becomes the brain. o It begins to swell in 3 parts:  Forebrain  Midbrain  Hindbrain  At seven months old approximately 700 million neurons are present; 1 billion present at birth. Prenatal Brain Development  Neuroblasts begin in the centre of the neural tube and migrate outwards  Cell proliferations and migration complete by 7 months…. (COMPLETE FROM SLIDES)  Synaptogenesis- dendritic branching (of neurons creating connections) o Has lead to idea that first years last forever (baby Mozart and baby Einstein based on one study that couldn't be replicated).  John T Buer actually believed that baby Mozart and Einstein may actually be too over stimulating  Neural Darwinism-brain is programmed to create more nerve cells and more connections between these cells than are needed  Synaptic pruning to achieve the best network of neurons  Disney no longer markets baby Einstein videos as educational Cognitive Development  Jean Piaget asked "How does knowledge grow?"  Children think in fundamentally different ways than adults  Piaget worked as a research assistant for Binet while he was creating the IQ test; Piaget noticed that children make similar age-related errors Innate Cognitive Processes  We move through an orderly and predictable series of stages  The mind is an active biological system which explains why a child will crave novelty o Children are active thinkers- hands on o Knowledge by interaction o Schemes- mental structure interpret the world- building block of cognitive development o Organization becomes increasingly abstract 1. Organization- infant's initial schemes sensory motor intelligence  First dependent on physical presence of object; non-mental representations. This explains why peek-a-boo is so entertaining for children.  Later, increasingly incorporate symbolic representations of reality  Language (internal mental representations) 2. Adaptation-adjusting our schemas  Assimilation keeps and adds to what exists; connects present with past  Accommodation results from new problems; connects present to future  Assimilation is conservative while accommodation is progressive.  Both processes allow for cognitive adaptation and equilibrium Stages of Development 1. Sensory motor Stage (0-2)  Infants understand their wants through their sensory and motor ___ with objects  Infants ___ think  Object permanence appears by 8-12 months. Out of sight= out of mind  9 Months- actively searching for toys 2. Preoperational Stage  Can now better represent objects not in sight  Make use of symbols but still ____  Egocentrism- world about one's self; can't understand other perspectives o Children in Mountains Test- There was a bear on the other side of model mountains; children were asked to identify the perspective of the bear based on pictures. They were able to get their own right, but they failed to identify other's properly Limitations to Preoperational Thought  Animistic Thinking  Magical Thinking  Concentration is perception bound (ex. 18 year old taller than grandma therefore they're older).  Lauers Conception….. (GET FROM SLIDES)  C
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