Four methods to acquire knowledge:
1. Authority- true because of tradition or because some person of distinction
says it's true.
2. Rationalism- reasoning alone to arrive to knowledge. Assumes that reasoning
correctly according to the rules of logic will yield truth.
3. Intuition- sudden insight, the clarifying idea that springs into consciousness
all at once as a while. It is not arrived at by reason; often seem to occur after
conscious reasoning has failed.
4. Scientific Method- using reasoning and intuition to establish truth. Relies on
Scientific Research and Statistics
Observational Studies- no variables are manipulated therefore causality
cannot be determined.
Parameter Estimation- conducted on samples to estimate the level of
one or more population characteristics. Ex. Surveys, opinion polls,
Correlational Studies- focus on two or more variables to determine if
they are related.
True Experiments- to determine causality through the manipulation of one or
more variables to measure the effect on the dependent variable.
Statistical Analysis is divided into two areas:
Descriptive Statistics- analysis done for the purpose of describing or
characterizing the data. For example, analyzing test results of the central
tendency, variability, and illustrating the shape of distribution with a graph.
Inferential Statistics- analysis which embraces techniques that allow one to
use obtained sample data to make inferences or draw conclusion about
populations. This involves probability and inference tests.
X or Y stands for the variable measured.
N stands for the total number of subjects/scores. X is the ith score, where i can vary from 1 to N.
Summation: Uses Sigma as symbol
o To the right, "Sum of the x variable from i=1 to N". ∑
X=iX 1 X +2X …3X orNX ∑
Example: For the following scores find the above summatio