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Data Analysis Chapters one and two.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC-2101
Professor
P.Pearson
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter One Four methods to acquire knowledge: 1. Authority- true because of tradition or because some person of distinction says it's true. 2. Rationalism- reasoning alone to arrive to knowledge. Assumes that reasoning correctly according to the rules of logic will yield truth. 3. Intuition- sudden insight, the clarifying idea that springs into consciousness all at once as a while. It is not arrived at by reason; often seem to occur after conscious reasoning has failed. 4. Scientific Method- using reasoning and intuition to establish truth. Relies on objective assessment. Scientific Research and Statistics  Observational Studies- no variables are manipulated therefore causality cannot be determined.  Naturalistic Observation  Parameter Estimation- conducted on samples to estimate the level of one or more population characteristics. Ex. Surveys, opinion polls, etc.  Correlational Studies- focus on two or more variables to determine if they are related.  True Experiments- to determine causality through the manipulation of one or more variables to measure the effect on the dependent variable. Statistical Analysis is divided into two areas:  Descriptive Statistics- analysis done for the purpose of describing or characterizing the data. For example, analyzing test results of the central tendency, variability, and illustrating the shape of distribution with a graph.  Inferential Statistics- analysis which embraces techniques that allow one to use obtained sample data to make inferences or draw conclusion about populations. This involves probability and inference tests. Chapter Two  X or Y stands for the variable measured.  N stands for the total number of subjects/scores.  X is the ith score, where i can vary from 1 to N. i  Summation: Uses Sigma as symbol o To the right, "Sum of the x variable from i=1 to N". ∑ o X=iX 1 X +2X …3X orNX ∑ Example: For the following scores find the above summatio
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