Anatomy Chapter 2.docx

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221

Anatomy Chapter 2 9/14/2012 6:43:00 AM Introduction  A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body  Cell biology is the scientific study of cellular structure and function A Generalized cell  There are many parts to the cell- plasma membrane, cytoplasm and the nucleus The Plasma Membrane  The plasma membrane which surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of a cell, is composed of proteins and lipids that are held together by forces other than chemical bonds o Fluid mosaic model: the membrane is a mosaic of proteins floating like icebergs in a lipid bilayer sea  Integral proteins extend into or through the lipid bilayer, peripheral proteins associate with the membrane lipids or integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membrane. Many integral proteins are glycoproteins with sugar groups attached to the ends that face the extracellular fluid  The membrane is semi permeable, only allowing certain things to cross. It is permeable to most non polar uncharged molecules, but channels and transporters allow other molecules to pass through  Diffusion: molecules moving from a level of high concentration to low concentration- passive process  Osmosis: water moving from a level of high concentration to a level of low concentration- passive process  Facilitated diffusion: the molecule binds to a transporter to cross the membrane- active process  Active transport: molecules move from a level of low concentration to an area of high concentration using ATP – active process  Endocytosis: receptor mediated endocytosis is the selective uptake of large molecules and articles that bind to specific receptors  Phagocytosis is the engulfing of a molecule  Exocytosis: involves movement of secretory waste products out of a cell by fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm: all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane
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