Anatomy Chapter 1

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221

Anatomy Chapter 1 9/12/2012 7:12:00 PM Anatomy Defined  anatomy is the science od body structures and the relationships amount structures, physiology is the study of body functions Levels of body organization and body systems  The human body consists of six levels of structural organization: chemical. Cellular, tissue, organ, system and organismal  Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism and the smallest living units in the human body (atoms and molecules)  Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function (epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous) o Epithelial covers body surfaces o Connective tissue protects and supports organs while supplying blood o Muscular tissue contacts to make body parts move o Nervous tissue caries information from one part of the body to another  Organs are composed of two or more different types of tissue, they have specific functions ands usually have recognizable shapes  Systems consist of related organs that have a common function o Example is the digestive system  The organismal level contains all the parts of an organism (the human body)  Integumentary system o Includes the skin and serves to protect the body, helps regulates temperature, eliminates waste and detects sensations  Skeletal system o Includes the bones and joints, supports the body  Muscular system o Specifically refers to the skeletal muscle tissue, participates in bringing about movements such as walking  Cardiovascular o Includes the blood and heart, carries blood and oxygen to your extremities  Lymphatic system and immunity o Lymphatic fluid, vessels, spleen, thymus, returns proteins to blood, contains sites of maturation of b and t cells, carries lipids  Nervous system o Brain spinal cord, nerves, generates action potential  Endocrine system o Includes glands such as pituitary, thyroid etc. Regulates body activities by releasing hormones  Respiratory system o Includes the lungs, transfers oxygen  Digestive system o Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, breaks down food  Urinary system o Includes the kidneys, urinary bladder and urethra; produces, stores and eliminates urine  Reproductive o Gonads, ovaries, vagina, penis, prostate; releases hormones and produces gametes Life process  All living organisms have certain characteristics that set them apart from nonliving things  Among the life process in humans are: o Metabolism: breaks down food molecules into smaller ones o Responsiveness: detect changes within or outside the body o Movement: motion of the body o Growth: an increase in body size o differentiation and reproduction: differentiation is when unspecialized cells go through to become specialized cells, reproduction is the formation of new cells for growth Basic anatomical terminology  Descriptions of any
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