Basal Ganglia.docx

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Kem Rogers

Basal Ganglia Deep Gray Matter of Cerebrum • Consists of basal nuclei (ganglia) • Involved in motor control • Basal forebrain nuclei – associated with memory • Claustrum – brain nucleus of unknown function • Amygdaloid body – part of limbic system Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) • Located in basal part of forebrain/telencephalon • Cluster of neurons in PNS • Deep within cerebral white matter • Group of subcortical brain nuclei collectively • Connections to cerebral cortex & thalamus • One of most basic components in forebrain, can be found in all vertebrates • Importance o Voluntary movement control  Selection and initiation  Coordination speed & strength o Procedural learning of routines/ habits o Cognition o Emotions o Estimation of time • Caudate nucleus & putamen = striatum o Some fibres of internal capsule passing through them created a striated appearance • Caudate nucleus arches superiorly over thalamus & lies medial to internal capsule • Globus pallidus & putamen – located lateral to the internal capsule • Receives input from cortical areas & send almost all their output back to motor cortex through a relay in the thalamus • Substantia nigra in midbrain also influences activity of basal nuclei • Function to start, stop & regulate intensity of voluntary movements ordered & executed by cerebral cortex • May select appropriate muscles or movements for a task & inhibit relevant antagonistic muscles • Control rhythmic, repetitive tasks & participate in learning of habits • Also involved in estimating passage of time Motor Control Hierarchy • Strategy/Goal o Association area of the cortex:  Prefrontal cortex  Ideomotor area o Basal ganglia • Tactics: o Sequence of muscle contractions  Motor cortex  Premotor cortex  Cerebellum • Execution: o Activation of motor neurons  Brainstem  Spinal cord (Spinal reflexes) Basal Forebrain Nuclei • Four important structures in cerebrum o Septal nucleus o Diagonal band (of Broca) o Horizontal band (of Broca) o Basal nucleus (of Meynert) • Part of basal forebrains cholinergic system (neurons that synthesize & release acetylcholine) • Located anterior & dorsal to hypothalamus • Main functions: rel
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