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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Kem Rogers

Introduction • Branches of anatomy o Gross anatomy: study of body structures which can be viewed with the naked eye o Histology (microscopic anatomy): study of body structures viewed with microscopes o Neuroanatomy: gross & microscopic study of the nervous system • Anatomical position o Standing erect o Feet together o Eyes forward o Palms facing anteriorly o Thumbs pointing away from body • Regions of the Body o Axial region: main axis of the body consists of: head, neck & trunk o Appendicular region: limbs or appendages Term Definition Example Superior (Cranial) Toward head end or upper part of the body; Head is superior to abdomen above Inferior (Caudal) Away from head end or toward lower part of Navel is inferior to the chin the body; below Anterior (Ventral) Toward or at the front of the body; in front Breastbone is anterior to spine Posterior (Dorsal) Toward or at the back of the body; behind Heart is posterior to breastbone Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on the Heart is medial to the arms inner side of Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the Arms are lateral to the chest outer side of Proximal Closer to the origin to body part or point ofElbow is proximal to the hand attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal Farther from origin of a body part or the Knee is distal to the thigh point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Superficial (External) Toward or at the body surface Skin is superficial to the muscles Deep (Internal) Away from the body surface Lungs are deep to the skin Ipsilateral On the same side Right hand & right foot are ipsilateral Contralateral On opposite sides Right hand & left foot are contralateral Planes of Section Through Body • Frontal Plane (Coronal): divides anterior and posterior • Median Plane (migsaggital): separates into right and left • Transverse Plane (horizontal or cross-sectional): divides body into superior & inferior • Oblique plane: diagonal between horizontal & vertical Human Body Plan • Tube-wit
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