Anthropology 1026F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon, Homo Sapiens, Binomial Nomenclature

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Discovery of evolutionary principles first occurred in western europe: charles darwin first to explain the basics of evolution developed theory of natural selection at the same time, alfred russel wallace reached the same conclusion (independently) Natural selection: critical mechanism of evolutionary change: refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive successes between individuals. Fixity of species: notion that once a species is created, it can never change: this opposed to theories of biological evolution, a widespread belief during the middle ages. 1514 copernicus challenged notion that the earth was the centre of the universe (originally proposed by aristotle) Sun = centre of universe (actually discovered by indian scholars: credit = given to copernicus. Invention of telescope: could see natural phenomena: yet: people still could not comprehend life forms changing over time (evolution) Developed concept of species based on mating ability.

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