Chapter 46 communication of respect in interethnic service. Ideology: links notions of power and politics to questions of how people regard the very nature of language. Conflict between korean shopkeepers and african american customers was a widely documented problem since the 1980s. Cultural differences in the use of such contextualization cues (sounds to global framing of activities) can lead to misunderstandings in intercultural communication. Behaviour that seems to be lacking in respect is often interpreted as threatening. Involvement = positive politeness phenomena & restraint = negative politeness phenomena. Restraint politeness: being reserved, not asking too much of the other person. 13 stores, 3 cities, cameras and store clerk transcripts. Basic service encounter: greeting > business exchange > closing of the encounter. Most korean-korean encounters display the same impersonal talk patterns that they have with the african americans. However his apparent resistance to engagement is the type of behaviour that aa find insulting.