Chapter 2: The Meaning of Progress and Development
Foraging: someone who hunts for food and provision
Slash and burn/Swidden: Clearing forests by burning trees and brush and planting crops among the
ashes of the cleared ground . The land would be cultivated from one to three years, then another plot
would be burned and planted. Simple occupational roles developed to make decisions or resolve
disputes. Groups organised into clans, and later on states.
Agriculture: Leaders organized labour for purpose of constructing public works. Technological
“noble savage”: a common, romanticized stereotype of various indigenous peoples. The visual trappings
and associations change depending on the culture, but the underlying idea is constant. The noble savage
is portrayed as ignorant and simple-minded but simultaneously uncorrupted by any of the moral failings
of modern civilization and possessing an innate wisdom and connection to nature
Progress: If we say that progression is evolutionary and must be done, what does that say about those
who FAIL to progress along expected lines?
- This makes us view different ways of living as better instead of just different
Morgan: Attorney who took interest in historical evolution of culture. Theory of human development in
which societies evolved through the stages of savagery, barbarism and civilization (savagery and
barbarianism has both early, middle and late stages). He said some societies had evolved completely
into civilization (Ex. USA) and some were still in earlier stages. To evolve requires major technological
invention. Examples: fire, bow and arrow, pottery and agriculture and animal domestication, etc.
factory system: At first, the “putting out” system was used, where merchants would give supplies to
workers and buy the finished products off them. Factory system brought spinners, weavers and others
together in one location to produce cloth. This prought more profit, more control and discipline
Mintz: Anthropologist who, in “Sweetness and Power”, shows how capitalism has undermined the social
quality of eating as well as the nutritional content of what we eat
Globalization: the expansion into virtually all areas of the world of a culture that assumes that economic
trade is the source of all well-being.
Community based conservation in Madagascar:
Ankarana, Madagascar – Anthropology
Significant conservation spot, under threat by Malagasy people
- Mining sapphires inside conservation areas, great threat
- Promise of ecotourism in Madagascar – giving job opportunities
- Problem is, sapphire miners and habitants of Madagascar do not profit. They see it as a problem
– touring areas are where they are finding the little work they have Could a “sustainable development” project based on community-based conservation and