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Chapter 2

Cultural Anthropology: A Problem Based Approach - Chapter 2.docx

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Anthropology 1025F/G
Andrew Walsh

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Chapter 2: The Meaning of Progress and Development Terms: Foraging: someone who hunts for food and provision Slash and burn/Swidden: Clearing forests by burning trees and brush and planting crops among the ashes of the cleared ground . The land would be cultivated from one to three years, then another plot would be burned and planted. Simple occupational roles developed to make decisions or resolve disputes. Groups organised into clans, and later on states. Agriculture: Leaders organized labour for purpose of constructing public works. Technological complexity increased. “noble savage”: a common, romanticized stereotype of various indigenous peoples. The visual trappings and associations change depending on the culture, but the underlying idea is constant. The noble savage is portrayed as ignorant and simple-minded but simultaneously uncorrupted by any of the moral failings of modern civilization and possessing an innate wisdom and connection to nature Progress: If we say that progression is evolutionary and must be done, what does that say about those who FAIL to progress along expected lines? - This makes us view different ways of living as better instead of just different Morgan: Attorney who took interest in historical evolution of culture. Theory of human development in which societies evolved through the stages of savagery, barbarism and civilization (savagery and barbarianism has both early, middle and late stages). He said some societies had evolved completely into civilization (Ex. USA) and some were still in earlier stages. To evolve requires major technological invention. Examples: fire, bow and arrow, pottery and agriculture and animal domestication, etc. Industrial revolution: factory system: At first, the “putting out” system was used, where merchants would give supplies to workers and buy the finished products off them. Factory system brought spinners, weavers and others together in one location to produce cloth. This prought more profit, more control and discipline connections: Mintz: Anthropologist who, in “Sweetness and Power”, shows how capitalism has undermined the social quality of eating as well as the nutritional content of what we eat Globalization: the expansion into virtually all areas of the world of a culture that assumes that economic trade is the source of all well-being. Cases: Community based conservation in Madagascar: Ankarana, Madagascar – Anthropology Significant conservation spot, under threat by Malagasy people - Mining sapphires inside conservation areas, great threat - Promise of ecotourism in Madagascar – giving job opportunities - Problem is, sapphire miners and habitants of Madagascar do not profit. They see it as a problem – touring areas are where they are finding the little work they have Could a “sustainable development” project based on community-based conservation and
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