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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Summary Understanding Humans

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Anthropology 1026F/G
Andrew Nelson

Chapter ThreeHeredity and EvolutionCells are the fundamental units of life and they are essentially classified into two typesSomatic cells make up body tissuesGametes eggs and sperm are reproductive cells that transmit genetic information from parent to offspringGenetic information is sound in DNA molecules that are in the nuclei of cellsDNA is capable of replication and during mitosis and meiosis this is a key factor that makes it possible for daughter cells to receive the correct amount of DNA to be able to function properlyDNA controls protein synthesis by directing cells to arrange amino acids in the proper sequence for each particular proteinRNA is a similar molecule which is also used on protein synthesisCells multiply by dividing and during cell division DNA is visible under a microscope in the form of chromosomesIn humans there are 46 chromosomes 23 from each parentSomatic cells divide during growth or tissue repair or replace old or damaged cellsSomatic cell division is called mitosisDuring mitosis a cell divides one time to produce two daughter cells that each possess a full and identical set of chromosomesSex cells are produced when specialized cells in the ovaries and testes divide during meiosisMeiosis is characterized by two divisions that produce four nonidentical daughter cells that each have only half the amount of DNA 23 chromosomes contained within the original cellGregor Mendel discovered the principles of segregation independent assortment and dominance and recessiveness by doing experiments with pea plantsCharacteristics influenced by only one genetic locus are called Mendelian traits ABO blood type is a human exampleMany characteristics including stature and skin colour are polygenic meaning that they are influenced by more than one genetic locus
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