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Chapter 2

Anthropology Chapter 2 Week 2 Notes.docx

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Western University
Anthropology 1027A/B
Claire Gurski

Anthropology Chapter 3 September 28, 2011 Chapter 3 Part 1: Suprasegmentals  Suprasegmentals o Suprasegmentals refers to the aspects or features of sounds which are ‘riding on top of’ the segments/sounds  These are often associated with a group of sounds rather than an individual segment  Stress  Length  Tone  Intonation  Stress o The relative prominence of one syllable with respect to another. This is accomplished by an increase in pitch and/or loudness and/or length o The usual distinction is between stressed (i.e. the most prominent syllable, usually marked with a raised vertical line *‘+) and unstressed syllables.  Example: phonetics *fo.’ne.tiks+ . indicates a new syllable o Stress is used to differentiate words in English  Protest the verb stresses the second syllable, protest the noun stresses the first syllable  Length o Some languages differentiate words on the basis of the length of a consonant or vowel  *pul+ ‘to gather’ (short), *pu:l+ ‘moon’ (long)  *fat(backwards c)+ ‘fate’ (short), *fat:(backwards c)+ ‘fact’ (long) o The difference between a long segment (represented by [:] and a short segment create lexical differences o Geminate consonants (two identical consonants side by side means long sound) o NB: In English, vowel length (e.g. beat [bit], [bi:t] vs bit [bIt]) is not strictly a contrast because quality variations are always involved o It is a tense/lax distinction rather than length  Tone o Some languages differentiate words on the basis of pitch variation, i.e. tone. o Example Mandarin Chinese  See example in PDF Suprasegmentals o Same group of segments, different tones – different meanings o Marked over the vowel, not to be mistaken for accents  Intonation o The pitch pattern of a sequence of speech sounds (usually a full sentence or utterance) is known as intonation  The intonational contour of an utterance helps the listener determine the meaning  Falling – end of a statement  Rising – question, uncertainty, continuation o Example: Are you tired? What did you say your name was?  Whether we’re aware or not we use intonation Chapter 3 Part 2: Syllables  The Syllable o Monosyllabic words [sij], [sIt], set o Disyllabic words: mission, margin, extra o Trisyllabic words: marginal, elephant, Canada o See Picture
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