Anthro 2245 - Readings for January 24, 2014

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Anthropology 2245F/G
Tania Granadillo

JANUARY 24, 2014 CHAPTER 46 – COMMUNICATION OF RESPECT IN INTERETHNIC SERVICE ENCOUTNERS: Benjamin Bailey -ideology: links notions of power and politics to questions of how people regard the very nature of language -conflict between Korean shopkeepers and African American customers was a widely documented problem since the 1980s Respect -cultural differences in the use of such contextualization cues (sounds to global framing of activities) can lead to misunderstandings in intercultural communication -behaviour that seems to be lacking in respect is often interpreted as threatening -involvement = positive politeness phenomena & restraint = negative politeness phenomena -restraint politeness: being reserved, not asking too much of the other person Methods -13 stores, 3 cities, cameras and store clerk transcripts Service Encounter Interaction -two types of service encounters • 1. Socially minimal • 2. Socially expanded -Basic service encounter • greeting > business exchange > closing of the encounter Service Encounters Between Koreans -most Korean-Korean encounters display the same impersonal talk patterns that they have with the African Americans -however his apparent resistance to engagement is the type of behaviour that AA find insulting -idea of communicating without talk in present in two important religious traditions in Korea (Buddhism and Confucianism), reading and writing over speaking Service Encounters Between Koreans And AA -AA treat the encounter as a social time for small talk Conclusion -AA see the Koreans avoidance of involvement as the arrogance of racism -Koreans see the AA stress in interpersonal involvement as a sign of selfishness -interethnic tensions: miscommunication due to cultural an linguistic differences. Socio- historical conditions (social, economic and racial inequality) clear sources of tension between Koreans and AA -the study of face-to-face interaction between groups can hopefully lessen these differences in communication patterns CHAPTER 47 – ON MOTHER AND OTHER TONGUES; SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SCHOOL AND LANGUAGE IDEOLOGY IN NORTHERN INDIA: Chaise LaDousa -24 languages are recognized as national languages in India -Hindi main language, descendent from Sanskrit -complicated view of the complexity of the linguistic situation in the famous Holy City Banaras -paper aims to trace some of the institutional lives of the notion of the “mother tongue” -necessary to consider languages as ideological constructs and important to consider languages’ social locations and values “Mother Tongue”, The Census and Education In The Sociolinguistics of India -MT as something to ne upheld and praised -learning a language without formal training considered at MT -but differing definitions are always appearing -MT VS. school -speakers of tribal languages suffer the most disadvantages because their languages are the most quickly dispensed with as a medium of instruction in school -schools exclude certain languages = playing into identity and possible shame Schools and Language Erasure in Banaras -Hindi Medium VS English Medium schools & private VS public schools -by creating the binary of Hindi OR English schools, people in Banaras often erase a number of languages and institutions that don’t fall under the rigid division -Bhojpuri is a language variety that exhibits regional variation different than Hindi • displacement and jobs have moved Bho speakers out of the usual Bho speaking region • a complex language with variation that has been the target of some controversy in scholarly literature -Most people in Northern India comprise a virtual continuum of speech forms extending across the subcontinent = no ONE language of India or region -Hindi has been standardized for public domains - this Hindi contrasts “pure Hindi” Notes On A “Complex” -school are important for considering the idea of a mother tongue in northern India because schooling presupposes a divide between Hindi and English me
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