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Chapter 11

Astronomy Chapter 11 Notes.pdf

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Astronomy 1021
Trevor Kirsh

CHAPTER 11: JOVIAN PLANET but captured different amounts of SYSTEMS hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula A very different kind of planetary • These icy planets captured different system amount of gas because their distance from the sun is different • The jovian planets may lack solid • Jupiter’s density increased as its radius surfaces on which geology can occur, increased because the center gets but they are interesting and dynamic compressed worlds with rapid winds, huge storms, • jovian planets rotate much faster than strong magnetic fields, and interiors in terrestrial planets which common materials behave in unfamiliar ways What are jovian planets like on the • Despite their relatively small sizes and inside? frigid temperatures, many jovian moons • The jovian planets have layered are geologically active by virtue of their interiors with very high internal icy compositions, a result of their temperatures and pressures formation in the outer regions of the • All have a core about 10 times as solar nebula and tidal heating massive as Earth, consisting of Right systems probably owe their • hydrogen compounds, metals, and existence to small moons formed in the rock disks of gas that produced the jovian • They differ mainly in their surrounding planets billion of years ago layers of hydrogen and helium, which • The rings we see today are composed can take on unusual forms under the of particles liberated from those moons extreme internal conditions of the quite recently planets • Understanding them allows us to • All the same shit in different thickness modify many of our earlier ideas about of layers: rock core, hydrogen the system by adding the concepts of compound, clouds ice geology, tidal heating, and orbital resonances What is the weather like on jovian planets? 11.1 • The jovian planets all have multiple cloud layers that give them distinctive Are jovian planets all alike? colours, fast winds, and large storms • Jupiter and Saturn are made almost • Jupiter has a troposphere, entirely of hydrogen and helium, while stratosphere, and a thermosphere, Uranus and Neptune are made mostly they’re all below the visible cloud layer of out of hydrogen compounds mixed of the planet with metals and rock • The planets all have dramatic weather • Jupiter doesnt have nuclear fusion so it patters, and the rotation creates doesnt even shine; failed star alternating bands of rising and falling • These differences arose because all air four planets started from ice rich planetesimals of about the same size, • Great Dark Spot is a banded high • The tidal heating only happens pressure storm on Neptune that because of Io’s close orbit, which is disappeared made elliptical by orbital resonances • Some storms such as Jupiter’s Great with other moons Red Spot can apparently rage for • Europa may have a deep liquid water centuries or longer ocean under its crust • Ganymede is the largest moon in t
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