Biochemistry 3381A Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Gibbs Free Energy, Thermodynamic Potential, Equilibrium Constant

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System: part of the universe we"re concerned with. Open system: energy and matter exchange with surroundings. The first law: the total energy of an isolated system is conserved. First law of thermodynamics: total energy of an isolated system is conserved. Internal energy (e or u): all energies that might be exchanged in physical/chemical processes (e. g. rotational, vibrational, translational energies of molecules, energy stored in covalent/non-covalent bonds) Depends only on present state of system referred to as state function. Doesn"t depend on how the system got to that state is independent of path. E changes only if energy flows in/out of the system in the form of heat or work. Change in internal energy given by: q = heat absorbed by the system from surroundings, w = work done on the system by surroundings. Mechanical work: movement through some distance caused by application of force. If you strain to lift something but fail to move it, no work has been done.

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