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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Key Terms.docx

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Biology 1001A

Chapter 6 Key Terms Activation-synthesis theory: the theory that dreams represent the brain’s attempt to interpret random patterns of neural activation triggered by the brain stem during REM sleep Alcohol myopia: when intoxicated, a “short-sightedness” in thinking (a failure to consider consequences) caused by an inability to pay attention to as much information as when sober Alpha waves: a brain-wave pattern of 8 to 12 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans in a relaxed waking state Amphetamine psychosis: schizophrenia-like hallucinations and delusions that occur when the brain’s dopamine activity is artificially increased far beyond normal levels by continuous, heavy amphetamine use Automatic processing: mental activities that occur automatically and require minimal or no conscious control or awareness Beta wave: a brain-wave pattern of 15 to 30 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans who are in an alert waking state Circadian rhythms: biological cycles within the body that occur on an approximately 24-hour cycle Cognitive-process dream theory: a theory that focuses on how (rather than why) we dream, and proposes that dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain Compensatory responses: bodily response that opposes a drug’s effects and occurs in an attempt to restore homeostasis Consciousness: our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment; consciousness involves selective attention to ongoing thoughts, perceptions and feelings Controlled (effortful) processing: mental processing that requires some degree of volitional control and attentiveness Delta waves: low-frequency, high-amplitude brain waves that occur in stage 3 sleep and predominate in stage 4 sleep Depressants: drugs – including alcohol, barbiturates, and tranquilizers – that reduce neural activity and may decrease feelings of tension and anxiety Dissociation theory (of hypnosis): the view that hypnosis is an altered state involving a division (“dissociation”) of consciousness; one theory proposes that the hypnotized person simultaneously experiences two streams of consciousness that are cut off from each other Divided attention: the ability to perform more than one activity at the same time Ecstasy (MDMA): (3,4 – methylenedioxy-methamphetamine); a derivative of amphetamine that acts on several neurotransmitters, including dopamine, but primarily alters serotonin functioning by causing the release of serotonin and blocking its reuptake Evolutionary/circadian sleep models: the view that in the course of evolution each species developed an adaptive circadian sleep-wake pattern that increased its chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands Hallucinogens: drugs – such as LSD and PCP – that distort or intensify sensory experience and evoke hallucinations and disordered thought processes Hypnosis: a condition of enhanced suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined test suggestions as if they were real
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