Biology 1001A - Lecture 3 - Evolution (Dev’t+ Theory) Sept.19/16
1. Difference between growth and development of an individual vs evolution.
Aging is not considered to be evolution as it occurs over the lifespan of one individual.
Evolution refers to gradual change in populations over generations.
2. Meaning of "vestigial structures" and what they tell us about the history of life on earth.
Vestigial structures are anatomical parts of organisms that are no longer in use (eg. dolphin
fingers). These structures indicate that the parts were useful in the organisms’ historic origins
and that for ex. dolphins lived on land.
3. Meaning of "catastrophism", "gradualism", "uniformitarianism".
- Catastrophism: Theory that Earth has been hit by violent, sudden events, sometimes
worldwide (eg. layers of fossils).
- Gradualism: Theory that Earth changed slowly- in contrast to catastrophism. Eg.
water erosion= canyons.
- Uniformitarianism: Geologic processes shaped Earth overtime like what we see today
(eg. volcanic eruptions, movement of glaciers).
4. How the principles of gradualism and uniformitarianism challenge the idea that the
earth is only a few thousand years old.
These theories suggest that the Earth has been shaped gradually over a long period of time.
5. Mechanisms of evolution proposed by Lamarck
Lamarck theorized two mechanisms of evolutionary change:
a) Use+ disuse- body parts grow/ shrink in proportion to use/disuse- True
b) Inheritance of acquired characteristics- changes an organism acquires during a
lifetime are passed down to offspring- False
6. Ways in which Lamarck contributed to development of evolutionary theory.
a) Proposed that all species change over time
b) Changes are passed from one generation to the next
c) Organisms change in response to their environment
d) Existence of specific mechanisms causing evolutionary change
7. How Darwin's observations of the natural world influenced his later thoughts about
8. Meaning of "adaptive traits"
Genetically-based characteristics increasing an organisms likelihoo